Other affiliations: Indian Council of Agricultural Research
Bio: A. Bhattacharyya is an academic researcher from Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya. The author has contributed to research in topics: Soil water & Pesticide residue. The author has an hindex of 6, co-authored 26 publications receiving 189 citations. Previous affiliations of A. Bhattacharyya include Indian Council of Agricultural Research.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors propose a method to solve the problem of homonymity of homophily in the context of homomorphic data, and no abstracts are available.
Abstract: No abstract available.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors propose a method to solve the problem of homonymity of homophily in the context of homomorphic data, and no abstracts are available.
Abstract: No abstract available.
TL;DR: The aim of this study was to optimise a multiresidue method for the simultaneous analysis of multi-class pesticides and a number of frequently used veterinary drugs using LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/, and it provided a precise analysis in a wide range of market-feed samples.
Abstract: Animal feeds are often reported to be contaminated with chemical residues, and when present above the maximum legal limit, these compounds can cause harmful effects to consumers of animal produce. Thus, animal feed safety is an important regulatory concern. The aim of this study was to optimise a multiresidue method for the simultaneous analysis of multi-class pesticides and a number of frequently used veterinary drugs using LC-MS/MS and GC–MS/MS. The method was validated in a range of feed matrices, including maize feed, poultry feed and mixed feed concentrate. The optimised sample preparation workflow involved extraction of feeds (5 g) with ethyl acetate (10 mL), followed by a freezing step (at -20°C) used for eliminating the matrix co-extractives. The extract was further cleaned by dispersive solid phase extraction with a combination of primary secondary amine, C18 and florisil sorbents. From the cleaned-extract, an aliquot was analysed by GC–MS/MS, while another portion of it was solvent-exchanged to acetonitrile:water (50:50) and then analysed by LC-MS/MS. This method effectively minimised the matrix interferences. A total of 192 pesticides was analysed by GC–MS/MS within a runtime of 22 min. The LC-MS/MS method was validated for 187 compounds including 17 veterinary drugs. For most of the compounds, the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.01 mg/kg. The recoveries at LOQ and higher levels ranged between 70% and 120%, with precision-RSDs of
TL;DR: Impact of pesticides use in agriculture: their benefits and hazards, and the risks and benefits to human health.
Abstract: The term pesticide covers a wide range of compounds including insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, rodenticides, molluscicides, nematicides, plant growth regulators and others. Among these, organochlorine (OC) insecticides, used successfully in controlling a number of diseases, such as malaria and typhus, were banned or restricted after the 1960s in most of the technologically advanced countries. The introduction of other synthetic insecticides – organophosphate (OP) insecticides in the 1960s, carbamates in 1970s and pyrethroids in 1980s and the introduction of herbicides and fungicides in the 1970s–1980s contributed greatly to pest control and agricultural output. Ideally a pesticide must be lethal to the targeted pests, but not to non-target species, including man. Unfortunately, this is not the case, so the controversy of use and abuse of pesticides has surfaced. The rampant use of these chemicals, under the adage, “if little is good, a lot more will be better” has played havoc with human and other life forms. Production and usage of pesticides in India The production of pesticides started in India in 1952 with the establishment of a plant for the production of BHC near Calcutta, and India is now the second largest manufacturer of pesticides in Asia after China and ranks twelfth globally (Mathur, 1999). There has been a steady growth in the production of technical grade pesticides in India, from 5,000 metric tons in 1958 to 102,240 metric tons in 1998. In 1996–97 the demand for pesticides in terms of value was estimated to be around Rs. 22 billion (USD 0.5 billion), which is about 2% of the total world market. The pattern of pesticide usage in India is different from that for the world in general. As can be seen in Figure 1, in India 76% of the pesticide used is insecticide, as against 44% globally (Mathur, 1999). The use of herbicides and fungicides is correspondingly less heavy. The main use of pesticides in India is for cotton crops (45%), followed by paddy and wheat. Figure 1 Consumption pattern of pesticides. Benefits of pesticides The primary benefits are the consequences of the pesticides' effects – the direct gains expected from their use. For example the effect of killing caterpillars feeding on the crop brings the primary benefit of higher yields and better quality of cabbage. The three main effects result in 26 primary benefits ranging from protection of recreational turf to saved human lives. The secondary benefits are the less immediate or less obvious benefits that result from the primary benefits. They may be subtle, less intuitively obvious, or of longer term. It follows that for secondary benefits it is therefore more difficult to establish cause and effect, but nevertheless they can be powerful justifications for pesticide use. For example the higher cabbage yield might bring additional revenue that could be put towards children's education or medical care, leading to a healthier, better educated population. There are various secondary benefits identified, ranging from fitter people to conserved biodiversity. Improving productivity Tremendous benefits have been derived from the use of pesticides in forestry, public health and the domestic sphere – and, of course, in agriculture, a sector upon which the Indian economy is largely dependent. Food grain production, which stood at a mere 50 million tons in 1948–49, had increased almost fourfold to 198 million tons by the end of 1996–97 from an estimated 169 million hectares of permanently cropped land. This result has been achieved by the use of high-yield varieties of seeds, advanced irrigation technologies and agricultural chemicals (Employment Information: Indian Labour Statistics, 1994). Similarly outputs and productivity have increased dramatically in most countries, for example wheat yields in the United Kingdom, corn yields in the USA. Increases in productivity have been due to several factors including use of fertiliser, better varieties and use of machinery. Pesticides have been an integral part of the process by reducing losses from the weeds, diseases and insect pests that can markedly reduce the amount of harvestable produce. Warren (1998) also drew attention to the spectacular increases in crop yields in the United States in the twentieth century. Webster et al. (1999) stated that “considerable economic losses” would be suffered without pesticide use and quantified the significant increases in yield and economic margin that result from pesticide use. Moreover, in the environment most pesticides undergo photochemical transformation to produce metabolites which are relatively non-toxic to both human beings and the environment (Kole et al., 1999).
TL;DR: It appears that environmentally relevant concentrations of neonicotinoids in surface waters worldwide are well within the range where both short- and long-term impacts on aquatic invertebrate species are possible over broad spatial scales.
Abstract: article i nfo Neonicotinoids, broad-spectrum systemic insecticides, are the fastest growing class of insecticides world- wide and are now registered for use on hundreds of field crops in over 120 different countries. The environ- mental profile of this class of pesticides indicate that they are persistent, have high leaching and runoff potential, and are highly toxic to a wide range of invertebrates. Therefore,neonicotinoids represent a signif- icant risk to surface waters and the diverse aquatic and terrestrial fauna that these ecosystems support. This review synthesizes the current state of knowledge on the reported concentrations of neonicotinoids in
TL;DR: The photodegradation of pesticides is reviewed, with particular reference to the studies that describe the mechanisms of the processes involved, the nature of reactive intermediates and final products.
Abstract: The photodegradation of pesticides is reviewed, with particular reference to the studies that describe the mechanisms of the processes involved, the nature of reactive intermediates and final products. Potential use of photochemical processes in advanced oxidation methods for water treatment is also discussed. Processes considered include direct photolysis leading to homolysis or heterolysis of the pesticide, photosensitized photodegradation by singlet oxygen and a variety of metal complexes, photolysis in heterogeneous media and degradation by reaction with intermediates generated by photolytic or radiolytic means.
TL;DR: It is essential to discuss the agricultural development process; the historical perspective, types and specific uses of pesticides; and pesticide behavior, its contamination, and adverse effects on the natural environment to provide the scientific information necessary for pesticide application and management in the future.
Abstract: Pesticides are indispensable in agricultural production. They have been used by farmers to control weeds and insects, and their remarkable increases in agricultural products have been reported. The increase in the world's population in the 20th century could not have been possible without a parallel increase in food production. About one-third of agricultural products are produced depending on the application of pesticides. Without the use of pesticides, there would be a 78% loss of fruit production, a 54% loss of vegetable production, and a 32% loss of cereal production. Therefore, pesticides play a critical role in reducing diseases and increasing crop yields worldwide. Thus, it is essential to discuss the agricultural development process; the historical perspective, types and specific uses of pesticides; and pesticide behavior, its contamination, and adverse effects on the natural environment. The review study indicates that agricultural development has a long history in many places around the world. The history of pesticide use can be divided into three periods of time. Pesticides are classified by different classification terms such as chemical classes, functional groups, modes of action, and toxicity. Pesticides are used to kill pests and control weeds using chemical ingredients; hence, they can also be toxic to other organisms, including birds, fish, beneficial insects, and non-target plants, as well as air, water, soil, and crops. Moreover, pesticide contamination moves away from the target plants, resulting in environmental pollution. Such chemical residues impact human health through environmental and food contamination. In addition, climate change-related factors also impact on pesticide application and result in increased pesticide usage and pesticide pollution. Therefore, this review will provide the scientific information necessary for pesticide application and management in the future.
TL;DR: It can be concluded that India is one of the major contributors of global persistent organic pesticide distribution and its impact on neighboring countries and regions is highlighted.
Abstract: Though the use of pesticides has offered significant economic benefits by enhancing the production and yield of food and fibers and the prevention of vector-borne diseases, evidence suggests that their use has adversely affected the health of human populations and the environment. Pesticides have been widely distributed and their traces can be detected in all areas of the environment (air, water and soil). Despite the ban of DDT and HCH in India, they are still in use, both in domestic and agricultural settings. In this comprehensive review, we discuss the production and consumption of persistent organic pesticides, their maximum residual limit (MRL) and the presence of persistent organic pesticides in multicomponent environmental samples (air, water and soil) from India. In order to highlight the global distribution of persistent organic pesticides and their impact on neighboring countries and regions, the role of persistent organic pesticides in Indian region is reviewed. Based on a review of research papers and modeling simulations, it can be concluded that India is one of the major contributors of global persistent organic pesticide distribution. This review also considers the health impacts of persistent organic pesticides, the regulatory measures for persistent organic pesticides, and the status of India's commitment towards the elimination of persistent organic pesticides.