A. M. Martinez
Bio: A. M. Martinez is an academic researcher. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 2951 citations.
TL;DR: This work considers the problem of automatically recognizing human faces from frontal views with varying expression and illumination, as well as occlusion and disguise, and proposes a general classification algorithm for (image-based) object recognition based on a sparse representation computed by C1-minimization.
Abstract: We consider the problem of automatically recognizing human faces from frontal views with varying expression and illumination, as well as occlusion and disguise. We cast the recognition problem as one of classifying among multiple linear regression models and argue that new theory from sparse signal representation offers the key to addressing this problem. Based on a sparse representation computed by C1-minimization, we propose a general classification algorithm for (image-based) object recognition. This new framework provides new insights into two crucial issues in face recognition: feature extraction and robustness to occlusion. For feature extraction, we show that if sparsity in the recognition problem is properly harnessed, the choice of features is no longer critical. What is critical, however, is whether the number of features is sufficiently large and whether the sparse representation is correctly computed. Unconventional features such as downsampled images and random projections perform just as well as conventional features such as eigenfaces and Laplacianfaces, as long as the dimension of the feature space surpasses certain threshold, predicted by the theory of sparse representation. This framework can handle errors due to occlusion and corruption uniformly by exploiting the fact that these errors are often sparse with respect to the standard (pixel) basis. The theory of sparse representation helps predict how much occlusion the recognition algorithm can handle and how to choose the training images to maximize robustness to occlusion. We conduct extensive experiments on publicly available databases to verify the efficacy of the proposed algorithm and corroborate the above claims.
01 Oct 2008
TL;DR: The database contains labeled face photographs spanning the range of conditions typically encountered in everyday life, and exhibits “natural” variability in factors such as pose, lighting, race, accessories, occlusions, and background.
Abstract: Most face databases have been created under controlled conditions to facilitate the study of specific parameters on the face recognition problem. These parameters include such variables as position, pose, lighting, background, camera quality, and gender. While there are many applications for face recognition technology in which one can control the parameters of image acquisition, there are also many applications in which the practitioner has little or no control over such parameters. This database, Labeled Faces in the Wild, is provided as an aid in studying the latter, unconstrained, recognition problem. The database contains labeled face photographs spanning the range of conditions typically encountered in everyday life. The database exhibits “natural” variability in factors such as pose, lighting, race, accessories, occlusions, and background. In addition to describing the details of the database, we provide specific experimental paradigms for which the database is suitable. This is done in an effort to make research performed with the database as consistent and comparable as possible. We provide baseline results, including results of a state of the art face recognition system combined with a face alignment system. To facilitate experimentation on the database, we provide several parallel databases, including an aligned version.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors categorize and evaluate face detection algorithms and discuss relevant issues such as data collection, evaluation metrics and benchmarking, and conclude with several promising directions for future research.
Abstract: Images containing faces are essential to intelligent vision-based human-computer interaction, and research efforts in face processing include face recognition, face tracking, pose estimation and expression recognition. However, many reported methods assume that the faces in an image or an image sequence have been identified and localized. To build fully automated systems that analyze the information contained in face images, robust and efficient face detection algorithms are required. Given a single image, the goal of face detection is to identify all image regions which contain a face, regardless of its 3D position, orientation and lighting conditions. Such a problem is challenging because faces are non-rigid and have a high degree of variability in size, shape, color and texture. Numerous techniques have been developed to detect faces in a single image, and the purpose of this paper is to categorize and evaluate these algorithms. We also discuss relevant issues such as data collection, evaluation metrics and benchmarking. After analyzing these algorithms and identifying their limitations, we conclude with several promising directions for future research.
••20 Jun 2005
TL;DR: The idea is to learn a function that maps input patterns into a target space such that the L/sub 1/ norm in the target space approximates the "semantic" distance in the input space.
Abstract: We present a method for training a similarity metric from data. The method can be used for recognition or verification applications where the number of categories is very large and not known during training, and where the number of training samples for a single category is very small. The idea is to learn a function that maps input patterns into a target space such that the L/sub 1/ norm in the target space approximates the "semantic" distance in the input space. The method is applied to a face verification task. The learning process minimizes a discriminative loss function that drives the similarity metric to be small for pairs of faces from the same person, and large for pairs from different persons. The mapping from raw to the target space is a convolutional network whose architecture is designed for robustness to geometric distortions. The system is tested on the Purdue/AR face database which has a very high degree of variability in the pose, lighting, expression, position, and artificial occlusions such as dark glasses and obscuring scarves.
TL;DR: A new technique coined two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA) is developed for image representation that is based on 2D image matrices rather than 1D vectors so the image matrix does not need to be transformed into a vector prior to feature extraction.
Abstract: In this paper, a new technique coined two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA) is developed for image representation. As opposed to PCA, 2DPCA is based on 2D image matrices rather than 1D vectors so the image matrix does not need to be transformed into a vector prior to feature extraction. Instead, an image covariance matrix is constructed directly using the original image matrices, and its eigenvectors are derived for image feature extraction. To test 2DPCA and evaluate its performance, a series of experiments were performed on three face image databases: ORL, AR, and Yale face databases. The recognition rate across all trials was higher using 2DPCA than PCA. The experimental results also indicated that the extraction of image features is computationally more efficient using 2DPCA than PCA.