Bio: A. Mandal is an academic researcher from University of Calcutta. The author has contributed to research in topics: Mercury (element) & Mercury(II) reductase. The author has an hindex of 10, co-authored 33 publications receiving 325 citations.
TL;DR: Two azoreductases (I and II) were purified to homogeneity from extracts of Shigella dysenteriae (type 1) using Ponceau SX, Tartrazine, Amaranth and Orange II as substrates.
Abstract: Two azoreductases (I and II) were purified to homogeneity from extracts of Shigella dysenteriae (type 1). Azoreductase I was a dimer of identical subunits of Mr 28 000, whereas azoreductase II was a monomer of 11 000 Mr. Both were flavoproteins, each containing 1 mol of FMN per mol enzyme. Both NADH and NADPH functioned as electron donors for the azoreductases. Azoreductase I used Ponceau SX, Tartrazine, Amaranth and Orange II as substrates. Azoreductase II utilized all the dyes except Amaranth.
TL;DR: Cell-free extracts prepared from narrow-spectrum Hg-resistant bacterial strains induced by HgCl(2) exhibited Hg(+2)-dependent NADPH oxidation, indicating the presence of only mercuric reductase enzyme.
Abstract: Mercury-resistant bacteria belonging to the genera Bacillus, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, Sarcina, Shigella, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus were isolated from gills and guts of fresh water fish collected from wetland fisheries around Calcutta, India, contaminated with mercury compounds. The total number of bacteria, as well as Hg-resistant bacteria, were always higher in guts than gills. Bottom-dwelling fish contained higher number of bacteria, including Hg-resistant bacteria, than surface and middle water dwelling fish. They belonged either to narrow-spectrum or to broad-spectrum Hg-resistant groups and they also possessed other heavy metal and antibiotic resistant properties. In the presence of toxic levels of HgCl2, phenylmercuric acetate (PMA) and methylmercuric chloride (MMC), the lag in growth of the bacterial strains gradually increased with increasing concentration of Hg-compounds. Narrow-spectrum Hg-resistant bacterial strains volatilized only HgCl2 from the liquid medium in the range of 64–89%, whereas the broad-spectrum group exhibited a high level of HgCl2 (80–94%), PMA (72–84%) and MMC (64–80%) volatilizing capacity with inducible mercuric reductase and organomercurial lyase enzyme activities in their cell-free extracts. Cell-free extracts prepared from narrow-spectrum Hg-resistant bacterial strains induced by HgCl2 exhibited Hg+2-dependent NADPH oxidation, indicating the presence of only mercuric reductase enzyme.
TL;DR: Two azoreductases (I and II) were purified to homogeneity from extracts of E. coli K12 and used Ponceau SX, Tartrazine, Amaranth and Orange II as substrates.
Abstract: Two azoreductases (I and II) were purified to homogeneity from extracts of E. coli K12. Azoreductase I was a dimer of two identical subunits of molecular weight 28000 whereas azoreductase II was a monomer of 12,000 molecular weight. Both NADH and NADPH functioned as electron donors for the azoreductases. Azoreductase I and II used Ponceau SX, Tartrazine, Amaranth and Orange II as substrates. Ponceau SX was the best substrate for both the enzymes. However, azoreductase II utilized tartrazine, amaranth and orange II less efficiently than azoreductase I.
TL;DR: Minimal inhibitory concentration values of HgCl2 and 5 organomercurials were determined against 24 mercury-resistant N2-fixing soil bacteria previously isolated from soil and identified in the laboratory.
Abstract: Minimal inhibitory concentration values of HgCl2 and 5 organomercurials were determined against 24 mercury-resistant N2-fixing soil bacteria previously isolated from soil and identified in our laboratory. These bacterial strains also displayed multiple antibiotic resistant properties. Typical growth pattern of a highly mercury-resistantBeijerinckia sp (KDr2) was studied in liquid broth supplemented with toxic levels of mercury compounds. Four bacterial strains were selected for determining their ability to volatilize mercury and their Hg-volatilizing capacity was different. Cell-free extracts prepared from overnight mercury-induced cells catalyzed Hg2+-induced NADPH oxidation. Specific activities of Hg2+-reductase which is capable of catalyzing conversion of Hg2+ →Hg(o) of 10 Hg-resistant bacterial strains are also reported.
TL;DR: It is reported that resting cells of mercury-resistant bacteria survive in a buffer system for several hours, synthesize inducible mercury-degrading enzymes and volatilize mercury from a mercury-containing buffer system.
Abstract: The mercuric ion reduction system encoded by the Hg2+ inducible mer operon confers bacterial resistance to mercuric ion. The mer A gene product which is a FAD-containing enzyme catalyzes the reduction of Hg2+ to volatile elemental mercury with the help of intracellular thiols and NADPH as a cofactor (Schottel 1974; Summers and Silver 1978; Fox and Walsh 1982; Misra 1992). Our earlier studies have shown that growing cells of different mercury-resistant bacteria reduce Hg2+ compounds to Hg(O) (Ray et al. 1989; Pahan et al. 1990a; Gachhui et al. 1989). We have also shown the effect of thiol compounds and flavins on mercury-degrading enzyme activities in mercury-resistant bacteria (Pahan et al. 1990b). Here we report that resting cells of mercury-resistant bacteria survive in a buffer system for several hours, synthesize inducible mercury-degrading enzymes and volatilize mercury from a mercury-containing buffer system. We know of no information regarding studies of mercury-degrading enzymes in resting mercury-resistant bacterial cells.
TL;DR: The most promising prospects are sketched out, but considerable efforts of research will be necessary to develop the applications to aquaculture.
Abstract: The research of probiotics for aquatic animals is increasing with the demand for environment-friendly aquaculture. The probiotics were defined as live microbial feed supplements that improve health of man and terrestrial livestock. The gastrointestinal microbiota of fish and shellfish are peculiarly dependent on the external environment, due to the water flow passing through the digestive tract. Most bacterial cells are transient in the gut, with continuous intrusion of microbes coming from water and food. Some commercial products are referred to as probiotics, though they were designed to treat the rearing medium, not to supplement the diet. This extension of the probiotic concept is pertinent when the administered microbes survive in the gastrointestinal tract. Otherwise, more general terms are suggested, like biocontrol when the treatment is antagonistic to pathogens, or bioremediation when water quality is improved. However, the first probiotics tested in fish were commercial preparations devised for land animals. Though some effects were observed with such preparations, the survival of these bacteria was uncertain in aquatic environment. Most attempts to propose probiotics have been undertaken by isolating and selecting strains from aquatic environment. These microbes were Vibrionaceae, pseudomonads, lactic acid bacteria, Bacillus spp. and yeasts. Three main characteristics have been searched in microbes as candidates to improve the health of their host. (1) The antagonism to pathogens was shown in vitro in most cases. (2) The colonization potential of some candidate probionts was also studied. (3) Challenge tests confirmed that some strains could increase the resistance to disease of their host. Many other beneficial effects may be expected from probiotics, e.g., competition with pathogens for nutrients or for adhesion sites, and stimulation of the immune system. The most promising prospects are sketched out, but considerable efforts of research will be necessary to develop the applications to aquaculture.
TL;DR: Several (laboratory-scale) continuous anaerobic/aerobic processes for the treatment of wastewaters containing azo dyes have recently been described.
Abstract: Azo dyes are the most important group of synthetic colorants. They are generally considered as xenobiotic compounds that are very recalcitrant against biodegradative processes. Nevertheless, during the last few years it has been demonstrated that several microorganisms are able, under certain environmental conditions, to transform azo dyes to non-colored products or even to completely mineralize them. Thus, various lignolytic fungi were shown to decolorize azo dyes using ligninases, manganese peroxidases or laccases. For some model dyes, the degradative pathways have been investigated and a true mineralization to carbon dioxide has been shown. The bacterial metabolism of azo dyes is initiated in most cases by a reductive cleavage of the azo bond, which results in the formation of (usually colorless) amines. These reductive processes have been described for some aerobic bacteria, which can grow with (rather simple) azo compounds. These specifically adapted microorganisms synthesize true azoreductases, which reductively cleave the azo group in the presence of molecular oxygen. Much more common is the reductive cleavage of azo dyes under anaerobic conditions. These reactions usually occur with rather low specific activities but are extremely unspecific with regard to the organisms involved and the dyes converted. In these unspecific anaerobic processes, low-molecular weight redox mediators (e.g. flavins or quinones) which are enzymatically reduced by the cells (or chemically by bulk reductants in the environment) are very often involved. These reduced mediator compounds reduce the azo group in a purely chemical reaction. The (sulfonated) amines that are formed in the course of these reactions may be degraded aerobically. Therefore, several (laboratory-scale) continuous anaerobic/aerobic processes for the treatment of wastewaters containing azo dyes have recently been described.
TL;DR: The first synthetic dye compound was aniline purple as mentioned in this paper, which was synthesized in 1856 and was the first compound to be synthesized from natural colorants, and it was used extensively in textile, leather tanning, paper production, food technology, agriculture, light harvesting array, coloring and pharmaceuticals.
Abstract: Color has always been a part of human life since long. All colorants, until the middle of nineteenth century, were of natural origin. Manufacturing of synthetic dyes started in 1856 and the first compound to be synthesized was aniline purple. By the beginning of the twenteeth century, synthetic dyes almost completely replaced natural compounds. Synthetic dyes represent an important class of industrial chemicals, which are used extensively in textile, leather tanning, paper production, food technology, agriculture, light harvesting array, coloring and pharmaceuticals
TL;DR: This review provides a summary of the use of probiotics for prevention of bacterial diseases in aquaculture, with a critical evaluation of results obtained to date.
Abstract: The increase of productivity in aquaculture has been accompanied by ecological impacts including emergence of a large variety of pathogens and bacterial resistance. These impacts are in part due to the indiscriminate use of chemotherapeutic agents as a result of management practices in production cycles. This review provides a summary of the use of probiotics for prevention of bacterial diseases in aquaculture, with a critical evaluation of results obtained to date.
TL;DR: The possible causal mechanisms of mercury toxicity are changes in the permeability of the cell membrane, reactions of sulphydryl (-SH) groups with cations, affinity for reacting with phosphate groups and active groups of ADP or ATP, and replacement of essential ions, mainly major cations.
Abstract: Mercury poisoning has become a problem of current interest as a result of environmental pollution on a global scale. Natural emissions of mercury form two-thirds of the input; manmade releases form about one-third. Considerable amounts of mercury may be added to agricultural land with sludge, fertilizers, lime, and manures. The most important sources of contaminating agricultural soil have been the use of organic mercurials as a seed-coat dressing to prevent fungal diseases in seeds. In general, the effect of treatment on germination is favorable when recommended dosages are used. Injury to the seed increases in direct proportion to increasing rates of application. The availability of soil mercury to plants is low, and there is a tendency for mercury to accumulate in roots, indicating that the roots serve as a barrier to mercury uptake. Mercury concentration in aboveground parts of plants appears to depend largely on foliar uptake of Hg0 volatilized from the soil. Uptake of mercury has been found to be plant specific in bryophytes, lichens, wetland plants, woody plants, and crop plants. Factors affecting plant uptake include soil or sediment organic content, carbon exchange capacity, oxide and carbonate content, redox potential, formulation used, and total metal content. In general, mercury uptake in plants could be related to pollution level. With lower levels of mercury pollution, the amounts in crops are below the permissible levels. Aquatic plants have shown to be bioaccumulators of mercury. Mercury concentrations in the plants (stems and leaves) are always greater when the metal is introduced in organic form. In freshwater aquatic vascular plants, differences in uptake rate depend on the species of plant, seasonal growthrate changes, and the metal ion being absorbed. Some of the mercury emitted from the source into the atmosphere is absorbed by plant leaves and migrates to humus through fallen leaves. Mercury-vapor uptake by leaves of the C3 speciesoats, barley, and wheat is five times greater than that by leaves of the C4 species corn, sorghum, and crabgrass. Such differential uptake by C3 and C4 species is largely attributable to internal resistance to mercury-vapor binding. Airborne mercury thus seems to contribute significantly to the mercury content of crops and thereby to its intake by humans as food. Accumulation, toxicity response, and mercury distribution differ between plants exposed through shoots or through roots, even when internal mercury concentrations in the treated plants are similar. Throughfall and litterfall play a significant role in the cycling and deposition of mercury. The possible causal mechanisms of mercury toxicity are changes in the permeability of the cell membrane, reactions of sulphydryl (-SH) groups with cations, affinity for reacting with phosphate groups and active groups of ADP or ATP, and replacement of essential ions, mainly major cations. In general, inorganic forms are thought to be more available to plants than are organic ones.