Bio: A. Mouahid is an academic researcher from Centre national de la recherche scientifique. The author has contributed to research in topics: Bulinus truncatus & Schistosoma haematobium. The author has an hindex of 2, co-authored 2 publications receiving 22 citations.
TL;DR: The cercarial shedding of Schistosoma bovis and S. haematobium were studied in single and mixed infections in the snail host Bulinus truncatus and the cercaria emergence pattern is proposed as a new method to identify natural mixed infectionsin the snail intermediate hosts.
Abstract: The cercarial shedding of Schistosoma bovis and S. haematobium were studied in single and mixed infections in the snail host Bulinus truncatus. The two species displayed a distinctive diurnal cercarial emergence with an earlier shedding pattern for S. bovis than S. haematobium (the average emergence peaks were respectively at 0800 h and 1200 h). In mixed infections, each species kept its own cercarial shedding rhythm with no marked alterations. The cercarial emergence pattern is proposed as a new method to identify natural mixed infections in the snail intermediate hosts. The interactions between the two parasites are discussed.
TL;DR: A comparative experimental study of the rhythmic shedding of three geographic strains of Schistosoma bovis cercariae by Bulinus truncatus showed a significant difference in the emergence patterns, supporting the existence of a genetic variability of the emergence rhythms.
Abstract: A comparative experimental study of the rhythmic shedding of three geographic strains of Schistosoma bovis cercariae (Sardinian, Sudanese and Spanish) by Bulinus truncatus showed a significant difference in the emergence patterns. The results support the existence of a genetic variability of the emergence rhythms. The origin of the variability is discussed and could be found in the pastoral practice and the ecological characteristics of the different transmission foci.
TL;DR: In this article, nuclear and mitochondrial markers revealed unexpected natural interactions between a bovine and human Schistosoma species: S. bovis and S. haematobium.
Abstract: Schistosomiasis is a disease of great medical and veterinary importance in tropical and subtropical regions, caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma (subclass Digenea). Following major water development schemes in the 1980s, schistosomiasis has become an important parasitic disease of children living in the Senegal River Basin (SRB). During molecular parasitological surveys, nuclear and mitochondrial markers revealed unexpected natural interactions between a bovine and human Schistosoma species: S. bovis and S. haematobium, respectively. Hybrid schistosomes recovered from the urine and faeces of children and the intermediate snail hosts of both parental species, Bulinus truncatus and B. globosus, presented a nuclear ITS rRNA sequence identical to S. haematobium, while the partial mitochondrial cox1 sequence was identified as S. bovis. Molecular data suggest that the hybrids are not 1st generation and are a result of parental and/or hybrid backcrosses, indicating a stable hybrid zone. Larval stages with the reverse genetic profile were also found and are suggested to be F1 progeny. The data provide indisputable evidence for the occurrence of bidirectional introgressive hybridization between a bovine and a human Schistosoma species. Hybrid species have been found infecting B. truncatus, a snail species that is now very abundant throughout the SRB. The recent increase in urinary schistosomiasis in the villages along the SRB could therefore be a direct effect of the increased transmission through B. truncatus. Hybridization between schistosomes under laboratory conditions has been shown to result in heterosis (higher fecundity, faster maturation time, wider intermediate host spectrum), having important implications on disease prevalence, pathology and treatment. If this new hybrid exhibits the same hybrid vigour, it could develop into an emerging pathogen, necessitating further control strategies in zones where both parental species overlap.
TL;DR: It is clear that a combinatior' of host immunity, resource partitioning within infracommunities, patch dynamics associated with parasite transmission, temporal factors involved with snail ontogeny, the presence of autogenic and allogenic parasite species within a given habitat, and the potential for interspecific antagonism operate to create the special nature of trematode communities in molluscan intermediate hosts.
Abstract: -The study of parasite communities has traditionally focussed on helminth communities in vertebrate hosts. However, the literature reveals a substantial body of information which shows that infraand component trematode communities in snails frequently are highly structured and very dynamic in character. A variety of forces, both internal and external to the snail, affect the manner in which these communities are organized and function. While snail-trematode and trematode-trematode interactions are variable, it appears that some generalizations are beginning to emerge. It is clear that a combinatior' of host immunity, resource partitioning within infracommunities, patch dynamics associated with parasite transmission, temporal factors involved with snail ontogeny, the presence of autogenic and allogenic parasite species within a given habitat, and the potential for interspecific antagonism, collectively, operate to create the special nature of trematode communities in molluscan intermediate hosts.
TL;DR: The data from this study indicate a lack of obvious spatial or temporal isolating mechanisms to prevent hybridization, raising the intriguing question of how the two species retain their separate identities.
Abstract: Background Schistosoma mansoni exists in a complex environmental milieu that may select for significant evolutionary changes in this species. In Kenya, the sympatric distribution of S. mansoni with S. rodhaini potentially influences the epidemiology, ecology, and evolutionary biology of both species, because they infect the same species of snail and mammalian hosts and are capable of hybridization.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that molecular detection of single and double infections by duplex PCR strongly outcompetes the classical method and adds to the understanding of community structure of larval trematodes in snail hosts, by providing a clearer assessment of the importance of interspecific interactions within the host.
Abstract: Background: Trematode communities often consist of different species exploiting the same host population, with two or more trematodes sometimes co-occuring in the same host. A commonly used diagnostic method to detect larval trematode infections in snails has been based on cercarial shedding, though it is often criticized as inaccurate. In the present study we compare infection prevalences determined by cercarial emission with those determined, for the first time, by molecular methods, allowing us to quantify the underestimation of single and double infections based on cercarial emission. We thus developed a duplex PCR for two host-parasite systems, to specifically differentiate between single and double infections. The Ebro samples include two morphologically similar opecoelids, whereas the Otago samples include two morphologically different larval trematodes. Methods: Snails were screened for infections by incubating them individually to induce cercarial emission, thus determining infection following the “classical” detection method. Snail tissue was then removed and fixed for the duplex PCR. After obtaining ITS rDNA sequences, four species-specific primers were designed for each snail-trematode system, and duplex PCR prevalence was determined for each sample. Results from both methods were statistically compared using the McNemar’s Chi-squared test and Cohen’s Kappa Statistic for agreement between outcomes. Results: Overall infection prevalences determined by duplex PCR were consistently and substantially higher than those based on cercarial shedding: among Ebro samples, between 17.9% and 60.1% more snails were found infected using the molecular method, whereas in the Otago samples, the difference was between 9.9% and 20.6%. Kappa values generally indicated a fair to substantial agreement between both detection methods, showing a lower agreement for the Ebro samples. Conclusions: We demonstrate that molecular detection of single and double infections by duplex PCR strongly outcompetes the classical method. Detection failure is most likely due to immature and covert infections, however, the higher incidence of misidentified double infections in the Ebro samples arises from morphological similarity of closely-related species. The higher accuracy of the duplex PCR method also adds to our understanding of community structure of larval trematodes in snail hosts, by providing a clearer assessment of the importance of interspecific interactions within the host.
TL;DR: The results showed that the chronobiological life-history trait is useful for the detection of new hosts and also may reveal the possible presence of introgressive hybridization in schistosomes.
Abstract: Schistosomiasis remains a parasitic infection which poses serious public health consequences around the world, particularly on the African continent where cases of introgression/hybridization between human and cattle schistosomiasis are being discovered on a more frequent basis in humans, specifically between Schistosoma haematobium and S. bovis. The aim of this paper is to analyze the occurrence of S. bovis in cattle and its relationship with S. haematobium in an area where cattle and humans share the same site in Benin (West Africa). We used the chronobiology of cercarial emergence as an ecological parameter and both molecular biology (COI mtDNA and ITS rDNA) of the larvae and morphology of the eggs as taxonomic parameters. The results showed a chronobiological polymorphism in the cercarial emergence rhythm. They showed for the first time the presence of S. bovis in Benin, the presence of introgressive hybridization between S. bovis and S. haematobium in domestic cattle, and the presence of atypical chronobiological patterns in schistosomes from cattle, with typical S. haematobium shedding pattern, double-peak patterns, and nocturnal patterns. Our results showed that the chronobiological life-history trait is useful for the detection of new hosts and also may reveal the possible presence of introgressive hybridization in schistosomes. Our results, for the first time, place cattle as reservoir host for S. haematobium and S. bovis x S. haematobium. The consequences of these results on the epidemiology of the disease, the transmission to humans, and the control of the disease are very important.