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A. R. Hornblow

Bio: A. R. Hornblow is an academic researcher from University of Canterbury. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 9 citations.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Binet-Simon test has been used to assess the intelligence of offenders in the U.S. as discussed by the authors, finding that 50 per cent of Offenders had been diagnosed as feeble-minded in the period 1910-1914, whereas only 2% had been'so classified in the 1925-1928 period.
Abstract: IN THE second decade of this century it was thought on both sides of the Atlantic that a major cause of crime was the low intelligence of ottenders. In England in 1913, C; B. Goring wrote: \"The one vital mental constitutional factor in the etiology of crime is defective intelligence\"; and Goring thought the more often a man was convicted the less intelligent he was likely to be (Hibbert, 1963). In America in 1919 H. H. Goddard wrote: \"It is no longer to be denied that the greatest single cause of delinquency and crime is low-grade mentality, much of it within the limits of' feeble-mindedness\" (Schulman, 1951). It was the advent of the Binet-Simon tests which made comparative studies of intelligence possible. Goddard, who introduced them into America, reported in 1912 that 25 per cent of the offenders tested performed in the reeble-mtnded range, but within two years this ngure had increased to 50 per cent (Halleck, 1968). And according to Brown and Courtless (1967) some studies in the first two decades of the century claimed that up to 100 per cent of offenders were retarded. Criticism of the tendency to see criminality as caused by, or highly correlated with, defective intelligence followed the standardisation of intelligence tests with army recruits in World War I and a growing awareness of the errors and inadequacies in test construction and administration. By 1924 Murchison was able to point to three major weaknesses of earlier studies, namely, an inadequate definition of retardation, over-estimation of the intellectual level of the population in general, and a lack of recognition of the importance of socio-cultural factors. Sutherland (1931) summarised the results of a survey in which all accessible reports relating to the intellectual level of the U.S. offenders were studied; the reports totalled 350 and covered assessments of approximately 150,000 delinquents and criminals in the period 1910 to 1928. He found that 50 per cent of Offenders had been diagnosed as feeble-minded in the period 1910-1914, whereas only 2{) per cent had been'so classified in the 1925-1928 period. The survey did not demonstrate that feeblemindedness was a major cause of delinquency. The variation in results was interpreted by Sutherland in terms of q.ifferences in methods and scoring employed by testers rather than as a change in the intellectual abilities of offenders. Studies by Burt (1925), Healy and Bronner (1926), Glueck and Glueck (1930, 1934, 1934a)\"McClure (1933), and Merrill (1947) reported respectively _8.1, 13.5, 20.6, 13.1, 34.1 (women), 27.4 (21.8 boys, 32.9 girls) and 23 per cent of the offenders studiedto be mentally defective.

9 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 1926-Nature
TL;DR: In this paper, Burt's aim is primarily practical; he wishes to afford to teachers, probation officers, and others, aid in the investigation and treatment of young offenders, based upon an exact and scientific study of data collected by himself in the course of his work in connexion with the schools of the London County Council, and brings to bear upon the treatment of his problems a breadth of outlook very rare in the previous studies of the etiology of crime.
Abstract: PROF. BURT'S aim in this important study is primarily practical; he wishes to afford to teachers, probation officers, and others, aid in the investigation and treatment of young offenders. His practical advice, however, is based upon an exact and scientific study of data collected by himself in the course of his work in connexion with the schools of the London County Council, and he brings to bear upon the treatment of his problems a breadth of outlook very rare in the previous studies of the etiology of crime. Very frequently these have been vitiated by over emphasis of selected cases, by preconceived notions as to the relative importance of heredity and environment as determinants of human conduct, by the absence of a sound anthropological and psychological basis. The Young Delinquent. By Prof. Cyril Burt. Pp. xx + 643. (London: University of London Press, Ltd., 1925.) 17s. 6d. net.

97 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a major contribution to the literature on delinquency is made, which surveys the resources of the clinician in the tasks of assessing social environment and understanding delinquent personalities; and describes the use of intelligence tests and projective techniques.
Abstract: This book is a major contribution to the literature on delinquency. Professor Merrill surveys the resources of the clinician in the tasks of assessing social environment and understanding delinquent personalities; and she describes the use of intelligence tests and projective techniques. The behaviour of delinquent children is understandable only in terms of the basic needs of the individual child and of his opportunities, or lack

45 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2003
TL;DR: A review of the literature on crime, delinquency, and its relation to intelligence can be found in this article, where the authors argue that even today criminologists tend to downplay the role of intelligence.
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter reviews the worldwide literature on crime, delinquency, and its relation to intelligence. The chapter begins with the historically troubled story of an inverse relationship between intelligence and delinquent and criminal behavior, and argues that even today criminologists tend to downplay the role of intelligence. The chapter presents, in the form of two tables, an updated review of intelligence–criminality relationships, one for intelligence in general, the other for intellectual imbalances among linguistic and non-linguistic components. The inverse IQ–crime and the intellectually imbalanced-crime relationships are confirmed, usually with the linguistic component being the weaker.. The chapter then draws attention to moral maturation theory, hemispheric functioning theory, and explores the role of evolutionary forces in explaining the observations, supplemented by the genetic influence hypothesis.

30 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: When Performance IQ is higher than Verbal IQ, the pattern is identified as Wechsler's classic "P > V" sign for delinquency as discussed by the authors, which suggests that a too-low V might be the active element in the P > V sign.
Abstract: When Performance IQ is higher than Verbal IQ, the pattern is identified as Wechsler's classic "P > V" sign for delinquency. Despite a previous hypothesis that a too-low V might be the active element in the P > V sign, the data suggested that the three components-- (a) lower V than average, (b) higher P than average, and (c) the degree of imbalance between V and P-may each uniquely contribute to the P > V sign. The P > V sign may now be seen as only one of two possible types of intellectual imbalance. Imbalance in either direction, that is, either Verbal IQ or Performance IQ higher than the other, may constitute a stress factor similar to that of a lower overall IQ in predisposing boys to delinquency. Keywords: Juvenile justice Language: en

30 citations