A. R. Sengupta
Other affiliations: National Institute of Technology, Silchar
Bio: A. R. Sengupta is an academic researcher from JIS College of Engineering. The author has contributed to research in topics: Rotor (electric) & Wind power. The author has an hindex of 4, co-authored 7 publications receiving 90 citations. Previous affiliations of A. R. Sengupta include National Institute of Technology, Silchar.
TL;DR: In this paper, three types of blade designs have been considered; two unsymmetrical blades namely S815 and EN0005 and one conventional symmetrical NACA 0018 blade.
Abstract: Vertical axis wind turbines can be successfully installed in low wind speed conditions but its detailed starting characteristics in terms of starting torque, starting time and dynamic performances have not been investigated thoroughly which is important for increasing the energy yield of such turbines. Amongst their designs, H-Darrieus rotor, in spite of having good power coefficient, possesses poor self-starting features as symmetrical blade profiles are used most of the times. Instead of using symmetrical blades if unsymmetrical or cambered blades are used with high solidity, then starting performance of H-Darrieus rotor along with its power coefficients can be improved. Though this performance improvement measures are correlated with improvement in the starting characteristics, a detailed work in this direction would be useful and for this reason the present work has been carried out. Three types of blade designs have been considered; two unsymmetrical blades namely S815 and EN0005 and one conventional symmetrical NACA 0018 blade, and experiments are conducted using a centrifugal blower test rig for three-bladed H-Darrieus rotors using these three considered blades at low wind streams (4 m/s, 6 m/s and 8 m/s). Considering reality, the effects of flow non-uniformity and turbulence intensity on the rotor performance at optimum condition as well as flow physics have also been studied. It has been found that unsymmetrical S815 blade rotor has higher dynamic torque and higher power coefficient than unsymmetrical EN0005 and symmetrical NACA 0018 blade H-Darrieus rotors.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors compared low wind speed aerodynamics of two different unsymmetrical airfoil blade profiles to obtain design information of blade camber and blade curvature around aerodynamic moment center for performance improvement of H-Darrieus VAWT.
Abstract: Unsymmetrical blade Vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) can be nicely adapted in the built environment because of its improved performance, self-starting ability, simple construction, easy maintenance and capability to adapt to wind direction changes. For proliferation of such VAWT installations, the challenge is to improve its efficiency in low wind speed condition (usually less than 10 m/s) of the built environment, which depends on its blade profile design. In an unsymmetrical blade, blade thickness-to-chord ratio, percentage camber, blade curvature around aerodynamic moment center are the controlling parameters for effective blade-fluid interactions for performance improvement, thus requiring a detailed investigation of the aerodynamics of unsymmetrical blade VAWT. The objective of this paper is to compare low wind speed aerodynamics of two different unsymmetrical airfoil blade profiles to obtain design information of blade camber and blade curvature around aerodynamic moment center for performance improvement of H-Darrieus VAWT, which is hardly available in the existing literature. Detailed blade-fluid interactions are analysed by Ansys Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software for different low wind speeds between 4 m/s and 8 m/s. It is found that more rounded curvature of the suction side surface of advancing S815 blade around aerodynamic moment center and thicker blade profile (maximum thickness is 26.2% at 25.7% chord) has a distinct influence for performance improvement of the rotor in the power stroke. In the returning stroke, the VAWT is benefited from higher camber of EN0005 blade (maximum camber percentage of 10% at 55% chord) and lesser blade curvature of the blade suction side. Next, vorticity structures of each blade profile have also been monitored at different azimuthal positions and necessary performance insights with regards the development of static/deep stall vortices and other boundary layer features have been drawn. Further, blade polars, power performance, and blade loading have also been obtained and compared with published results. Overall better designs of unsymmetrical blade profiles have also been recommended. The present study leads to the understanding of the design blade camber and curvature signatures in both power and returning strokes for possible performance improvement of small-sized VAWT in low wind speed condition.
••01 Oct 2019
TL;DR: In this paper, two modified systems have been designed; one having cylindrical boiling chamber (vessel) and the other having spherical boiling chamber(vessel). Both the chambers are having a cocoon heating chamber associated with them for cooking and drying of silk cocoons simultaneously.
Abstract: In India, Silk industry plays an important part in textile industry. Muga silk, the golden yellow silk is quite unique to Assam, North-east India where its production is regarded as an important tool for economic development. But, outdated manufacturing technology is followed during the silk production in Assam. The existing cooking process of silk cocoons consists of boiling of silk cocoons in a stainless steel vessel along with water and soda in an open fireplace which is highly energy inefficient. Therefore, two modified systems have been designed; one having cylindrical boiling chamber (vessel) and the other having spherical boiling chamber (vessel). Both the chambers are having a cocoon heating chamber associated with them for cooking and drying of silk cocoons simultaneously. These designs are further classified into two types of designs based on channel and nozzle type combustion chambers. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to improve the existing designs to maximize the utilization of heat carried by the combustion gases. These modified systems are analysed by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) selecting standard k–є model. From the analysis, it is seen that these new systems having nozzle type combustion chambers are more efficient than the systems having cylindrical combustion chambers and if these systems are used in silk production, it will be very beneficial for the silk industry as well as for our society.
TL;DR: In this article, the effects of variations of low wind speeds have been quantified with respect to their impact on the blade-fluid interactions of the rotors at various azimuthal positions.
Abstract: In this paper, blade-fluid interactions of high-solidity unsymmetrical and symmetrical blade H-Darrieus rotors have been studied using detailed computational fluid dynamics simulations to obtain insight into their performance in low wind speed conditions. In the existing literature, such comparative studies of high-solidity rotors are few, but are required for improving their steady-state performance at low wind speeds. For this study, a thick S815 unsymmetrical airfoil and a NACA0018 symmetrical airfoil have been selected. The effects of variations of low wind speeds have been quantified with respect to their impact on the blade-fluid interactions of the rotors at various azimuthal positions. It has been found that in the advancing stroke, a trailing-edge vortex on the suction side of the S815 blade H-Darrieus rotor as well as the leading-edge shape of the S815 blade are responsible for the higher performance of the unsymmetrical blade rotor. Moreover, in the returning stroke, a strong recirculating seco...
••01 Jan 2021
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of circular cavity shape on VAWT's aerodynamic performance was investigated and the optimal tip speed ratio for the H-Darrieus turbine was obtained as 1.3 for which the considered NACA 0021 blade turbine showed maximum power coefficient of 0.16.
Abstract: Straight-blade vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) have the ability to exhibit self-starting features and improved aerodynamic performance in the built environment for significant wind speed conditions. But in low wind speeds, such turbines realize several constraints for improved performance in terms of various parameters like blade design, blade shape, solidity, tip speed ratio (TSR), thickness-to-chord ratio and others. Therefore, the motivation behind the present work is the need for performance improvement of H-Darrieus VAWT in the built environment, which has characteristically low wind speed. Cavity shapes on the airfoil surface might cause local flow acceleration leading to suppression of boundary layer separation, which might enhance VAWT’s aerodynamic performance. In this paper, an attempt is made to investigate the effect of circular cavity shape on VAWT’s aerodynamic performance. Cavities have been formed on NACA 0021 airfoil based H-Darrieus VAWT. A CFD study is carried out to understand the inherent flow physics of the turbine. Results showed that there is a significant improvement in starting characteristic of the turbine at wind speeds 5 and 6 m/s having cavity on pressure side. The optimal tip speed ratio for the H-Darrieus turbine has been obtained as 1.3 for which the considered NACA 0021 blade turbine shows maximum power coefficient of 0.16.
TL;DR: In this article, a review of recent published works on CFD simulations of Darrieus VAWTs is presented for turbulence modeling, spatial and temporal discretization, numerical schemes and algorithms, and computational domain size.
Abstract: The global warming threats, the presence of policies on support of renewable energies, and the desire for clean smart cities are the major drives for most recent researches on developing small wind turbines in urban environments. VAWTs (vertical axis wind turbines) are most appealing for energy harvesting in the urban environment. This is attributed due to structural simplicity, wind direction independency, no yaw mechanism required, withstand high turbulence winds, cost effectiveness, easier maintenance, and lower noise emission of VAWTs. This paper reviews recent published works on CFD (computational fluid dynamic) simulations of Darrieus VAWTs. Recommendations and guidelines are presented for turbulence modeling, spatial and temporal discretization, numerical schemes and algorithms, and computational domain size. The operating and geometrical parameters such as tip speed ratio, wind speed, solidity, blade number and blade shapes are fully investigated. The purpose is to address different progresses in simulations areas such as blade profile modification and optimization, wind turbine performance augmentation using guide vanes, wind turbine wake interaction in wind farms, wind turbine aerodynamic noise reduction, dynamic stall control, self-starting characteristics, and effects of unsteady and skewed wind conditions.
TL;DR: In this paper, a Darrieus H-type VAWT has been employed to investigate the effect of operational parameters such as tip speed ratio (λ), Reynolds number (Rec) and turbulence intensity (TI) on the aerodynamic performance of VAWTs.
Abstract: Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) have received growing interest for off-shore application and in the urban environments mainly due to their omni-directional capability, scalability, robustness, low noise and costs. However, their aerodynamic performance is still not comparable with their horizontal axis counterparts. To enhance their performance, the impact of operational parameters such as tip speed ratio (λ), Reynolds number (Rec) and turbulence intensity (TI) on their power performance and aerodynamics needs to be deeply understood. The current study, therefore, intends to systematically investigate the effect of these parameters in order to provide a deeper insight into their impact on the aerodynamic performance of VAWTs. For this investigation, a Darrieus H-type VAWT has been employed. A wide range of the parameters is considered: λ = 1.2–6.0, Rec = 0.3 × 105–4.2 × 105 and TI = 0%–30% to analyze the turbine performance, turbine wake and dynamic loads on blades. High-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD), extensively validated with experimental data, are employed. The results show that (i) variable-speed operation maintaining the optimal λ at different wind speeds improves the turbine power coefficient, e.g. up to 168% at 4 m/s, while keeping an almost constant thrust coefficient, (ii) the turbine performance and wake are Re-dependent up to the highest Rec studied, (iii) large TI (> 5%) improves the turbine performance in dynamic stall by promoting the laminar-to-turbulent transition and delaying stall on blades, however it deteriorates the optimal performance by introducing extra skin friction drag. The findings of the current study can support more accurate performance prediction of VAWTs for various operating conditions and can help the improvement of the aerodynamic performance of VAWTs.
TL;DR: In this paper, the flat plate deflector is used as a power augmentation device placed at the lower upstream of a micro H-rotor VAWT to induce high velocity wind at the near-wake region.
Abstract: Power augmentation features have been proven as one of the wind turbine performance enhancement methods particularly for vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs). Researches showed that with the aid of a deflector, shroud or a single plate, the power output of a VAWT can be increased remarkably. In this paper, lab tests and simulations were performed to investigate the aerodynamic effects and the flow field around a flat plate deflector as a power augmentation device which is placed at the lower upstream of a micro H-rotor VAWT. From the study, the deflector is able to induce a high velocity wind at the near-wake region which was about 25% higher compared to the oncoming wind velocity. The deflected wind flows improve the performance significantly as well as reduce the self-start velocity of the turbine. Nonetheless, it is highly dependent on the positioning of the flat plate deflector. Both experiment and simulation showed a notable observation on the position effect of the flat plate deflector. From the lab test, with the deflector at the optimal position, the maximum coefficient of power (CP) achieved was 7.4% increment compared to the bare turbine. Also, from the simulation, the optimal position showed an improvement of averaged CP up to 33% compared to the bare turbine. The flat plate deflector is simple, low cost, and can be easily retrofitted to existing stand-alone VAWT systems to improve the efficiency making them suitable for on-site power generation in urban and isolated places.
••01 Jan 2020
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of employing slotted airfoil as turbine blade on the performance and starting characteristics has been investigated for the Darrieus type vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT).
Abstract: Low starting torque is considered as one of the major drawbacks of Darrieus type vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT). Design optimization to overcome this problem by modifying the airfoil geometry has received great attention by the wind energy community. Moreover, efforts have been directed towards augmenting the power coefficient of the turbine. In the present work, the effect of employing slotted airfoil as turbine blade on the performance and starting characteristics has been investigated. The slot parameters; slot location, angle of inclination, and dimensions, were optimized for NACA 0018 airfoil which is commonly used in Darrieus turbines. The flow over the turbine was modelled using ANSYS-FLUENT code. The main observations of the present study show that the VAWT with slotted Airfoil (SA) has a lower optimum tip speed ratio (TSR) compared with the Baseline (BL) turbine. This is associated with the ability to generate higher torque at lower rotational speeds. The analysis of the aerodynamic behavior of the SA turbine shows that the airfoil slot delays the separation at high angles of attack, and therefore improves the torque and power coefficient at low TSR.
TL;DR: In this paper, the performance of an innovative configuration of straight-blades Darrieus-style vertical axis micro wind turbine, specifically developed for small scale energy conversion at low wind speeds, has been made on scaled models.
Abstract: Renewable sources of energy, needed because of the increasing price of fossil derivatives, global warming and energy market instabilities, have led to an increasing interest in wind energy Among the different typologies, small scale Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT) present the greatest potential for off grid power generation at low wind speeds In the present work, wind tunnel investigations about the performance of an innovative configuration of straight-blades Darrieus-style vertical axis micro wind turbine, specifically developed for small scale energy conversion at low wind speeds, has been made on scaled models The micro turbine under investigation consists of three pairs of airfoils Each pair consists of a main and auxiliary airfoil with different chord lengths A standard Darrieus configuration, consisting of three single airfoils, was also tested for comparison The experiments were conducted in a closed circuit open chamber wind tunnel facility available at the Laboratory of Industrial Measurements (LaMI) of the University of Cassino and Lazio Meridionale (UNICLAM) Measured data were reported in terms of dimensionless power and torque coefficients for dynamic performance analysis and static torque coefficient for static performance analysis The adoption of auxiliary airfoils has demonstrated to give more dynamic torque at the lower wind speeds with respect to a standard Darrieus rotor, resulting in better performance for all the wind speeds considered In terms of dynamic power coefficient, the standard Darrieus configuration presented slightly better performance for the highest wind speed analyzed The proposed configuration showed also an higher value of static torque coefficient with respect to the standard Darrieus micro turbine, resulting in a better self-starting ability