Bio: A. Sanjid is an academic researcher from University of Malaya. The author has contributed to research in topics: Diesel fuel & Diesel engine. The author has an hindex of 16, co-authored 24 publications receiving 1577 citations.
TL;DR: In this paper, it was found that a maximum of 25% biodiesel and 5% of ethanol/bioethanol can be added to the diesel fuel effectively, which can reduce the use of diesel fuel by approximately 25-30%.
Abstract: The global fossil fuel crisis and emission problems lead to investigations on alternative fuels. In this quest, a successful finding is the partial substitution of diesel with ethanol/bioethanol rather than completely replacing it. These blends of diesel and ethanol/bioethanol can be used in the existing CI engines without any major modifications and the most significant result of using this blend is the lower emission with almost the same performance as of diesel fuel alone. Two major drawbacks of using this blend are low miscibility of ethanol/bioethanol in diesel and low temperature instability of produced blend. However, biodiesel can be successfully added to prevent the phase separation of diesel–ethanol/bioethanol blend. Thus, this blend becomes stable even at lower temperatures and more amount of ethanol/bioethanol can be added to them. It is found that a maximum of 25% biodiesel and 5% of ethanol/bioethanol can be added to the diesel fuel effectively. Adding ethanol/bioethanol to diesel fuel alters the properties of the blend, which does not meet some of the standards. Biodiesel addition to this blend helps in regaining the fuel properties to the standard values and thus the blend can be efficiently used in the existing diesel engines. From the review, it can be said that, the use of diesel–biodiesel–ethanol/bioethanol blend can minimize the use of diesel fuel by approximately 25–30%.
TL;DR: In this article, the performance and emission parameters of a diesel engine run by both palm biodiesel-diesel and Calophyllum biodiesel -diesel blends were evaluated at high idling conditions.
Abstract: Rapid depletion of fossil fuels, increasing fossil-fuel price, carbon price, and the quest of low carbon fuel for cleaner environment – these are the reason researchers are looking for alternatives of fossil fuels. Renewable, non-flammable, biodegradable, and non-toxic are some reasons that are making biodiesel as a suitable candidate to replace fossil-fuel in near future. In recent years, in many countries of the world production and use of biodiesel has gained popularity. In this research, biodiesel from palm and Calophyllum inophyllum oil has been produced using the trans-esterification process. Properties of the produced biodiesels were compared with the ASTM D6751 standard: biodiesel standard and testing methods. Density, kinematic viscosity, flash point, cloud point, pour point and calorific value, these are the six main physicochemical properties that were investigated. Both palm biodiesel and Calophyllum biodiesel were within the standard limits, so they both can be used as the alternative of diesel fuel. Furthermore, engine performance and emission parameters of a diesel engine run by both palm biodiesel–diesel and Calophyllum biodiesel–diesel blends were evaluated at high idling conditions. Brake specific fuel consumption increased for both the biodiesel–diesel blends compared to pure diesel fuel; however, at highest idling condition, this increase was almost negligible. Exhaust gas temperatures decreased as blend percentages increased for both the biodiesel–diesel blends. For low blend percentages increase in NOX emission was negligible but as blend percentages increase, emission increased significantly. CO and HC emission for both biodiesel–diesel blends were lower compared to pure diesel fuel. 20% Calophyllum biodiesel–diesel blends emitted lowest HC and CO emission.
TL;DR: In this paper, an experimental study was conducted on a four-cylinder diesel engine to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of Jatropha biodiesel blends with and without the addition of N,N'-diphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (DPPD) antioxidant.
Abstract: Energy requirements are increasing rapidly due to fast industrialization and the increased number of vehicles on the road. The use of biodiesel in diesel engines instead of diesel results in the proven reduction of harmful exhaust emissions. However, most researchers have reported that they produce higher NOx emissions compared to diesel, which is a deterrent to the expansion of the market for these fuels. Several proposed pathways try to account for NOx formation during the combustion process. Among them, the Fenimore mechanism explains that fuel radicals formed during the combustion process react with nitrogen from the air to form NOx. It could be proposed that if these radical reactions could be terminated, the NOx formation rate for biodiesel combustion would decrease. An experimental study was conducted on a four-cylinder diesel engine to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of Jatropha biodiesel blends (JB5, JB10, JB15 and JB20) with and without the addition of N,N'-diphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (DPPD) antioxidant. For each tested fuel, the engine performance and emissions were measured at engine speeds 1000-4000 rpm at an interval of 500 rpm under the full throttle condition. The results showed that this antioxidant additive could reduce NOx emissions significantly with a slight penalty in terms of engine power and Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) as well as CO and HC emissions. However, when compared to diesel combustion, the emissions of HC and CO with the addition of the DPPD additive were found to be nearly the same or lower. By the addition of 0.15% (m) DPPD additive in JB5, JB10, JB15 and JB20, the reduction in NOx emissions were 8.03%, 3.503%, 13.65% and 16.54% respectively, compared to biodiesel blends without the additive under the full throttle condition. Moreover, the addition of DPPD additive to all biodiesel blend samples reduced the exhaust gas temperature. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors evaluated the BSFC, engine power, exhaust and noise emission characteristics of a combined palm and jatropha blend in a singlecylinder diesel engine at different engine speeds ranging from 1400 to 2200 rpm.
Abstract: An ever increasing drift of energy consumption, unequal geographical distribution of natural wealth and the quest for low carbon fuel for a cleaner environment are sparking off the production and use of biodiesels in many countries around the globe. In this work, palm biodiesel and jatropha biodiesel were produced from the respective crude vegetable oils through transesterification, and the different physicochemical properties of the produced biodiesels have been presented, and found to be acceptable according to the ASTM standard of biodiesel specification. This paper presents experimental results of the research carried out to evaluate the BSFC, engine power, exhaust and noise emission characteristics of a combined palm and jatropha blend in a single-cylinder diesel engine at different engine speeds ranging from 1400 to 2200 rpm. Though the PBJB5 and PBJB10 biodiesels showed a slightly higher BSFC than diesel fuel, all the measured emission parameters and noise emission were significantly reduced, except for NO emission. CO emissions for PBJB5 and PBJB10 were 9.53% and 20.49% lower than for diesel fuel. By contrast, HC emissions for PBJB5 and PBJB10 were 3.69% and 7.81% lower than for diesel fuel. The sound levels produced by PBJB5 and PBJB10 were also reduced by 2.5% and 5% compared with diesel fuel due to their lubricity and damping characteristics.
TL;DR: A review of the literature available concerning the energy balance of internal combustion engines operating on alternative fuels can be found in this paper, where the basic energy balance theory has been discussed in details along with the variations in energy balance approaches and terms.
Abstract: This paper reviews the literature available concerning the energy balance of internal combustion engines operating on alternative fuels. Global warming and energy crisis are among the most important issues that threaten the peaceful existence of the man-kind. More usage of alternative fuels and energy loss minimization from automotive engines can be an effective solution to this issue. The energy balance analysis gives useful information on the distribution of supplied fuel energy in the engine systems and identifies the avoidable losses of the real engine process with respect to ideal process. It is a very widely used tool, mostly used for the layout of the engine components. The basic energy balance theory has been discussed in details along with the variations in energy balance approaches and terms. The wall energy loss may vary to a great extent depending on the selection of heat transfer correlations. The theoretical energy balance also explored in this paper with help of thermodynamic models. There are some significant variations observed in energy balance when the engine operating fuel is changed and devices like turbocharger, supercharger etc. are used to boost the intake air pressure. The review extends to the energy balance study of low heat rejection engines (LHR) as well as the effects of engine variables and design factors on energy balance.
TL;DR: The use of non-edible plant oils is very significant because of the tremendous demand for edible oils as food source as mentioned in this paper, however, edible oils’ feedstock costs are far expensive to be used as fuel.
Abstract: World energy demand is expected to increase due to the expanding urbanization, better living standards and increasing population. At a time when society is becoming increasingly aware of the declining reserves of fossil fuels beside the environmental concerns, it has become apparent that biodiesel is destined to make a substantial contribution to the future energy demands of the domestic and industrial economies. There are different potential feedstocks for biodiesel production. Non-edible vegetable oils which are known as the second generation feedstocks can be considered as promising substitutions for traditional edible food crops for the production of biodiesel. The use of non-edible plant oils is very significant because of the tremendous demand for edible oils as food source. Moreover, edible oils’ feedstock costs are far expensive to be used as fuel. Therefore, production of biodiesel from non-edible oils is an effective way to overcome all the associated problems with edible oils. However, the potential of converting non-edible oil into biodiesel must be well examined. This is because physical and chemical properties of biodiesel produced from any feedstock must comply with the limits of ASTM and DIN EN specifications for biodiesel fuels. This paper introduces non-edible vegetable oils to be used as biodiesel feedstocks. Several aspects related to these feedstocks have been reviewed from various recent publications. These aspects include overview of non-edible oil resources, advantages of non-edible oils, problems in exploitation of non-edible oils, fatty acid composition profiles (FAC) of various non-edible oils, oil extraction techniques, technologies of biodiesel production from non-edible oils, biodiesel standards and characterization, properties and characteristic of non-edible biodiesel and engine performance and emission production. As a conclusion, it has been found that there is a huge chance to produce biodiesel from non-edible oil sources and therefore it can boost the future production of biodiesel.
TL;DR: In this article, a comprehensive assessment of various feedstocks used for different generation biodiesel production with their advantages and disadvantages are also explained, and different production methods for biodiesel with yield calculation is also explained.
Abstract: Continuous increase in world’s population, rapid industrialization, urbanization, and economic growth force for continuously increase in fossil fuel consumption to meet growing energy demand. Continuous emissions from burning of fossil fuel will create the need to find the appropriate and sustainable replacement for fossil fuels. Biodiesel is appropriate alternate solution for diesel engine due to its renewable, non-toxic and eco-friendly nature. According to EASAC biodiesel evolution is classified into four generations. Cultivation in arid and semi arid land or water, crop yield, effect on food supply, yield of biodiesel, energy content, carbon-neutral economy, easy availability, and economic viable are the main factors behind the evolution of biodiesel generations. This article highlights a comprehensive assessment of various feedstocks used for different generation biodiesel production with their advantages and disadvantages. Different production methods for biodiesel with yield calculation are also explained. Algae based third generation feedstocks are better in comparison with first and second generation due to their high energy content, high oil content and less polluting nature. Forth generation of biodiesel produced from synthetic biology, which will enhance the various physiochemical properties of biodiesel to achieve carbon neutral economy. Among the all biodiesel production processes; transesterification is the most suitable process, because it produces biodiesel of high yield, comparable properties with diesel. This process is also feasible as per economic point of view. The energy demand of future can be met by the blending of different generation oil feedstocks.
TL;DR: The most common process in the production of biodiesel is transesterification, and using a methanol-ethanol mixture will combine the advantages of both alcohols in biodiesel production.
Abstract: In recent years, biodiesel has attracted significant attention from researchers, governments, and industries as a renewable, biodegradable, and non-toxic fuel. However, several feedstocks have been proven impractical or infeasible because of their extremely high cost due to their usage primarily as food resources. Waste cooking oil (WCO) is considered the most promising biodiesel feedstock despite its drawbacks, such as its high free fatty acid (FFA) and water contents. This review paper provides a comprehensive overview of the pre-treatment and the usage of WCO for the production of biodiesel using several methods, different types of reactors, and various types and amounts of alcohol and catalysts. The most common process in the production of biodiesel is transesterification, and using a methanol–ethanol mixture will combine the advantages of both alcohols in biodiesel production. In addition, this paper highlights the purification and analysis of the produced biodiesel, operating parameters that highly affect the biodiesel yield, and several economic studies. This review suggests that WCO is a promising feedstock in biodiesel production.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors introduced some species of non-edible vegetables whose oils are potential sources of biodiesel, such as Pongamia pinnata (karanja), Calophyllum inophyllus (Polanga), Maduca indica (mahua), Hevea brasiliensis (rubber seed), Cotton seed, Simmondsia chinesnsis (Jojoba), Nicotianna tabacum (tobacco), Azadirachta indica, Linum usitatissimum (Linseed)
Abstract: Energy demand is increasing dramatically because of the fast industrial development, rising population, expanding urbanization, and economic growth in the world. To fulfill this energy demand, a large amount of fuel is widely used from different fossil resources. Burning of fossil fuels has caused serious detrimental environmental consequences. The application of biodiesel has shown a positive impact in resolving these issues. Edible vegetable oils are one of the potential feedstocks for biodiesel production. However, as the use of edible oils will jeopardize food supplies and biodiversity, non-edible vegetable oils, also known as second-generation feedstocks, are considered potential substitutes of edible food crops for biodiesel production. This paper introduces some species of non-edible vegetables whose oils are potential sources of biodiesel. These species are Pongamia pinnata (karanja), Calophyllum inophyllum (Polanga), Maduca indica (mahua), Hevea brasiliensis (rubber seed), Cotton seed, Simmondsia chinesnsis (Jojoba), Nicotianna tabacum (tobacco), Azadirachta indica (Neem), Linum usitatissimum (Linseed) and Jatropha curcas (Jatropha). Various aspects of non-edible feedstocks, such as biology, distribution, and chemistry, the biodiesel’s physicochemical properties, and its effect on engine performance and emission, are reviewed based on published articles. From the review, fuel properties are found to considerably vary depending on feedstocks. Analysis of the performance results revealed that most of the biodiesel generally give higher brake thermal efficiency and lower brake-specific fuel consumption. Emission results showed that in most cases, NOx emission is increased, and HC, CO, and PM emissions are decreases. It was reported that a diesel engine could be successfully run and could give excellent performance and the study revealed the most effective regulated emissions on the application of karanja, mahua, rubber seed, and tobacco biodiesel and their blends as fuel in a CI engine.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provided the substantial information on biodiesel to the researchers, engineers and policy makers, and concluded that biodiesel has the potential to be used as a diesel fuel substitute in diesel engines to solve the energy and environment crisis.
Abstract: Due to the finite stock of fossil fuels and its negative impact on the environment, many countries across the world are now leaning toward renewable sources energies like solar energy, wind energy, biofuel, hydropower, geothermal and ocean energy to ensure energy for the countries development security. Biodiesel is one kind of biofuel that is renewable, biodegradable and has similar properties of fossil diesel fuel. The aim of this paper is to provide the substantial information on biodiesel to the researchers, engineers and policy makers. To achieve the goal, this paper summarizes the information on biofuel development, feedstocks around the world, oil extraction technic, biodiesel production processes. Furthermore, this paper will also discuss the advantages of biodiesel compared to fossil fuel. Finally, the combustion behavior of biodiesel in an internal combustion engine is discussed and it will help the researchers and policy maker and manufacturer. To determine the future and goal of automotive technology the study found that, feedstock selection for biodiesel production is very important as it associates 75% production cost. Moreover, the test of fuel properties is very important before using in the engine which depends on the type of feedstocks, origin country, and production process. Most of the researchers reported that the use of biodiesel in diesel engine reduces engine power slightly but reduces the harmful emission significantly. Finally, the study concludes that biodiesel has the potential to be used as a diesel fuel substitute in diesel engines to solve the energy and environment crisis.