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A. Wolf

Bio: A. Wolf is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: History of science. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 68 citations.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Sep 1941-Nature
TL;DR: The sixteenth century is commonly regarded as marking the birth of modern science and it owes this distinction mainly to the achievements of a small number of men, of whom Copernicus, Vesalius, Gilbert, Tycho Brahe, Gesner, Libavius, Bruno, Fracastoro and Porta are the most famous.
Abstract: THE sixteenth century is commonly regarded as marking the birth of modern science. It owes this distinction mainly to the achievements of a small number of men, of whom Copernicus, Vesalius, Gilbert, Tycho Brahe, Gesner, Libavius, Bruno, Fracastoro and Porta are the most famous. These constituted a very small percentage of the authors who enjoyed some sort of reputation among their contemporaries for their views on natural phenomena. Prof. Thorndike deals with about 1,200 such writers. The vast majority of them were of little, if any, scientific importance. A History of Magic and Experimental Science Vols. 5 and 6: The Sixteenth Century. By Prof. Lynn Thorndike. (History of Science Society Publications, New Series 4.) Vol. 5. Pp. xxii + 695. Vol. 6. Pp. xviii + 766. (New York: Columbia University Press; London: Oxford University Press, 1941.) 66s. 6d. net.

73 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: From the early decades of the 14th century until 1650, continental Europeans executed between 200,000 and 500,000 witches, 85% or more of whom were women as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: From the early decades of the 14th century until 1650, continental Europeans executed between 200,000 and 500,000 witches, 85% or more of whom were women. The character and timing of these executions and the persecutions which preceded them were determined in part by changed objectives of the Inquisition, as well as by a differentiation process within medieval society. The which craze answered the need for a redefinition of moral boundaries, as a result of the profound changes in the medieval social order. The fact that these executions and the accompanying demonological theories enjoyed widespread and popular acceptance can be explained through the anomie which permeated society at that time. While these conditions provided the intellectual, cognitive background for the witch-hunts,economic and demographic changes, together with the emotional need for a target, explain why the witch-hunts were directed at women.

126 citations

Book
01 May 2009
TL;DR: Taussig's "What Color Is the Sacred?" as discussed by the authors is an extended meditation on the mysteries of color and the fascination they provoke, and it explores further dimensions of what Taussig calls 'the bodily unconscious' in an age of global warming.
Abstract: Over the past thirty years, visionary anthropologist Michael Taussig has crafted a highly distinctive body of work. Playful, enthralling, and whip-smart, his writing makes ingenious connections between ideas, thinkers, and things. An extended meditation on the mysteries of color and the fascination they provoke, "What Color Is the Sacred?" is the next step on Taussig's remarkable intellectual path. Following his interest in magic and surrealism, his earlier work on mimesis, and his recent discussion of heat, gold, and cocaine in "My Cocaine Museum", this book uses color to explore further dimensions of what Taussig calls 'the bodily unconscious' in an age of global warming. Drawing on classic ethnography as well as the work of Benjamin, Burroughs, and Proust, he takes up the notion that color invites the viewer into images and into the world. Yet, as Taussig makes clear, color has a history - a manifestly colonial history rooted in the West's discomfort with color, especially bright color, and its associations with the so-called primitive. He begins by noting Goethe's belief that Europeans are physically averse to vivid color while the uncivilized revel in it, which prompts Taussig to reconsider colonialism as a tension between chromophobes and chromophiliacs. And he ends with the strange story of coal, which, he argues, displaced colonial color by giving birth to synthetic colors, organic chemistry, and IG Farben, the giant chemical corporation behind the Third Reich. Nietzsche once wrote, 'So far, all that has given colour to existence still lacks a history'. With "What Color Is the Sacred?", Taussig has taken up that challenge with all the radiant intelligence and inspiration we've come to expect from him.

101 citations

Dissertation
01 Jan 2003
TL;DR: In this article, a neglected period in the history of Egyptology has been studied, focusing on the sources available to medieval Moslem/Arabs to learn about Ancient Egypt, and various elements that contributed to the making of an Interpretatio Arabica of Ancient Egypt.
Abstract: This thesis researches a neglected period in the history of Egyptology. The impetus was my own training in Egyptology in which no mention was ever made of any medieval Arab contribution. My upbringing as an Egyptian had made me aware of some of the sources which could fill the gap between the classical sources and the European Renaissance. The first chapter discusses the sources available to medieval Moslem/Arabs to learn about Ancient Egypt, and the various elements that contributed to the making of an Interpretatio Arabica of Ancient Egypt. As Egyptian monuments have always been perceived as hiding great treasures, the second chapter discusses treasure hunters, their manuals and state regulation, and the economics of the profession. I give examples of these manuals and their relevance to current archaeological work. Chapter three covers medieval Arab archaeological methods and descriptions of ancient sites and objects. Chapter four shows how interest in ancient Egyptian scripts continued and the attempts by some Medieval Moslem/Arab scholars to decipher hieroglyphs, having realised that it has an alphabet. I give examples of Egyptian scripts correctly deciphered. Chapter five discusses the Medieval Moslem/Arab concepts of Ancient Egyptian religion and how they interpreted the many intact temples. It covers the role of magic, the nature of royal cults, animal cults and holy sites. Chapter six discusses Egyptian Mummia, Mummification and Burial Practices of both humans and animals as well as the medicinal use of mummia in Arabic medicine. Chapter seven shows that Egypt was thought to be the land of science par excellence and gives examples of different scientific Mirabilia attributed to scientists of Pre-Islamic Egypt. Chapter eight discusses the Moslem/Arab concept of Egyptian Kingship and State Administration. It shows the survival of some ancient Egyptian institutions such as “Children of the Room” into the medieval period. I include a case study of Queen Cleopatra showing how the Arabic Romance of this queen differs significantly from its Western counterpart. Chapter nine gives the biographies of the main Arab writers whose works have formed the basis of my thesis. The last chapter contains my conclusions and recommendations for further work that I hope others may pursue.

52 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A botanical, cultural and historical portrait of sesame use in Southwest Asia, from earliest time to the present, is presented in this paper, where the crop's domestication and subsequent dispersal are reviewed from the archaeological literature and early texts.
Abstract: The purpose of this work is to present a botanical, cultural and historical portrait of sesame use in Southwest Asia, from earliest time to the present. The crop's domestication and subsequent dispersal are reviewed from the archaeological literature and early texts. The introduction of sesame represents an agricultural innovation in Southwest Asia, since as a ‘tropical’ warm weather crop, sensitive to freezing temperatures, it is successfully grown in the region as a summer crop, by selecting cultivars that mature early. Its seeds are used as food and flavoring. The chief constituent of the seed is its prized oil, 45–60 % by weight that resists oxidative rancidity. It is used as a salad or cooking oil, an ingredient in cosmetics, in the manufacture of soaps, pharmaceuticals, and lubricants, and was formerly used as a lamp oil. The press cake remaining after the oil is expressed is a nutritious livestock meal. Information about medieval cultivation practices and evidence of its use in early centu...

51 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Continental philosophy of science has developed alongside mainstream analytic philosophy as discussed by the authors. But where continental approaches are inclusive, analytic philosophies of science are not, including not merely Nietzsche's philosophy of philosophy of art but also Godel's philosophy in physics.
Abstract: Continental philosophy of science has developed alongside mainstream analytic philosophy of science. But where continental approaches are inclusive, analytic philosophies of science are not–excluding not merely Nietzsche’s philosophy of science but Godel’s philosophy of physics. As a radicalization of Kant, Nietzsche’s critical philosophy of science puts science in question and Nietzsche’s critique of the methodological foundations of classical philology bears on science, particularly evolution as well as style (in art and science). In addition to the critical (in Mach, Nietzsche, Heidegger but also Husserl just to the extent that continental philosophy of science tends to depart from a reflection on the crisis of foundations), other continental philosophies of science include phenomenology (Husserl, Bachelard, Merleau‐Ponty, etc.) and hermeneutics (Heidegger, Gadamer, Heelan, etc.), especially incorporating history of science (Nietzsche, Mach, Duhem, Butterfield, Feyerabend, etc.). Examples are drawn fro...

50 citations