Other affiliations: Indian Institute of Science, University of Colorado Boulder
Bio: Abhijit Chaudhuri is an academic researcher from Indian Institute of Technology Madras. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Convection & Viscous fingering. The author has an hindex of 14, co-authored 44 publication(s) receiving 656 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Abhijit Chaudhuri include Indian Institute of Science & University of Colorado Boulder.
01 Jan 2017-Geothermics
TL;DR: In this article, the authors performed coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) simulations using a robust code called Finite Element for Heat and Mass Transfer (FEHM) for a 3D domain with a single fracture connecting the injection and production wells.
Abstract: Hot water extraction and cold water injection into an underground geothermal reservoir cause mechanical deformation of rock matrix and rock joints/fractures. That leads to alteration of hydraulic transmissivity. To study the evolution of reservoir transmissivity we performed coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) simulations using a robust code called Finite Element for Heat and Mass Transfer (FEHM) for a 3-D domain with a single fracture connecting the injection and production wells. Rock fracture was modeled as a thin equivalent porous medium. We established dynamic relations between the properties of the equivalent porous medium and fracture aperture. In this paper we discuss the alteration of fracture aperture due to heat extraction. The channeling of flow between injection and production wells by THM effects causes faster temperature drawdown and reduces energy production. The model also predicted fracture opening near injection well and closure at far field locations. We also simulated the aperture alteration for different joint stiffness, thermal expansion coefficients and rock matrix permeabilities. Increase in rock matrix permeability not only causes the leakage of injected water but also increases matrix contraction due to cooling and therefore the aperture growth. Additionally we reported the effect of thermo-poro-elastic deformation on the expansion and contraction of the formation for different reservoir properties. We established that in the early-stages the compaction/expansion of the formation was controlled by pore pressure change but in the late-stage it was controlled by thermal contraction.
01 Jul 2006-Structural Safety
TL;DR: In this article, the authors developed a general framework of time varying unconditional reliability evaluation of linear elastic multi degree of freedom structures with uncertain parameter subjected to the generalized earthquake ground motion, a non-stationary process both in amplitude and frequency content.
Abstract: The present work aims towards the development of a general framework of time varying unconditional reliability evaluation of linear elastic multi degree of freedom structures with uncertain parameter subjected to the generalized earthquake ground motion, a non-stationary process both in amplitude and frequency content. The formulation is developed in double frequency spectrum to derive the generalized power spectral density function of the structural responses. The time varying reliability is evaluated using conditional crossing rate following the Vanmarcke’s modification. The perturbation based stochastic finite element method is utilized in deriving unconditional reliability. An idealized three dimensional dam structure subjected to El Centro (1940) earthquake is taken up to elucidate the proposed unconditional time varying reliability computation procedure based on the maximum top displacement and base shear criteria. The results are presented to compare the change in reliabilities of the uncertain system with that of deterministic system and associated variance of the reliability due to parameter uncertainty.
01 Oct 2018-Earth-Science Reviews
TL;DR: A comprehensive review of state-of-the-art geothermal reservoir modeling for heat extraction is presented in this article, where a critical review of individual evaluation of coupling among all possible processes that are thermo, hydro, mechanical, and chemical processes on heat extraction performance is presented.
Abstract: Heat extraction from the geothermal reservoir is sensitive to reservoir properties, operating parameters and coupling among various processes. Due to complex reservoir structure, heat extraction performances and flow field behaviour in geothermal reservoirs are very different than the small scale laboratory model experiments. In recent past, significant progress in reservoir scale numerical modeling has been made for quantification of challenges in geothermal energy system development. In this paper, a comprehensive review of state of the art geothermal reservoir modeling for heat extraction is presented. Various numerical tools and approaches such as the finite difference method, finite element method, finite volume method, etc. to model the geothermal reservoir in the last four decades are discussed. The thrust of this paper is on a critical review of individual evaluation of coupling among all possible processes that are thermo, hydro, mechanical, and chemical processes on heat extraction performance. Future directions in developing better understanding on geothermal reservoir systems are proposed.
01 Oct 2008-Water Resources Research
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors consider the alteration of variable-aperture fractures in gradient reaction regimes, where fluids are in chemical equilibrium with a mineral everywhere but precipitation and dissolution are driven by solubility gradients associated with temperature variations.
Abstract:  Precipitation and dissolution reactions within fractures alter apertures, which in turn affects their flow and transport properties. Different aperture alteration patterns occur in different flow and reaction regimes, and they are also influenced by preferential flow resulting from spatial variations in the aperture. We consider the alteration of variable-aperture fractures in gradient reaction regimes, where fluids are in chemical equilibrium with a mineral everywhere but precipitation and dissolution are driven by solubility gradients associated with temperature variations. The temperature field is defined by a geothermal gradient corresponding to a conduction-dominated heat transfer regime. Monte Carlo simulations on computer-generated aperture fields vividly illustrate pattern formation resulting from two-way feedback between fluid flow and reactive alteration. In dissolution-controlled systems, distinct dissolution channels develop along the dominant flow direction, while elongated precipitate bodies form perpendicular to the mean flow direction in precipitation-controlled systems. Aperture variability accelerates the increase and decrease of effective transmissivity by dissolution and precipitation, respectively. The dominance of precipitation versus dissolution is determined by the angle between the mean hydraulic gradient and solubility/temperature gradient. Development of pronounced anisotropy with oriented elongate features is the key feature of aperture alteration in gradient reaction regimes. A stochastic analysis is developed, which consistently predicts general trends in the aperture field during reactive alteration, including the mean, variance, and spatial covariance structure. Our results are relevant to understanding the long-term diagenetic evolution of fractures in conduction-dominated heat transfer regimes and related problems such as emplacement of ocean bed methane hydrates.
TL;DR: In this paper, a double frequency domain formulation has been developed to tackle non-stationary earthquake motion for obtaining the analytical sensitivity statistics of various dynamic response quantities with respect to structural parameters.
Abstract: Sensitivity evaluation of response under static and dynamic load is proved to be an essential part of the optimization and reliability analysis of structure. Most of these works concentrate on sensitivity analysis of static and dynamic structural responses under deterministic forcing function. The present paper deals with the important issue of response sensitivity evaluation of structures in seismic reliability evaluation. The formulation has been developed in double frequency domain to tackle non-stationary earthquake motion for obtaining the analytical sensitivity statistics of various dynamic response quantities with respect to structural parameters. A multistoried building frame has been studied to elucidate the proposed algorithm.
01 Jun 2019-Desalination
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide an updated review of studies related to membrane modules (plate and frame, tubular, spiral wound, and hollow fiber) and membrane characterization and discuss membrane cleaning and different pre-treatment technologies in place for RO desalination, such as feed-water pretreatment and biocides.
Abstract: Water scarcity is a grand challenge that has always stimulated research interests in finding effective means for pure water production. In this context, reverse osmosis (RO) is considered the leading and the most optimized membrane-based desalination process that is currently dominating the desalination market. In this review, various aspects of RO desalination are reviewed. Theories and models related to concentration polarization and membrane transport, as well as merits and drawbacks of these models in predicting polarization effects, are discussed. An updated review of studies related to membrane modules (plate and frame, tubular, spiral wound, and hollow fiber) and membrane characterization are provided. The review also discusses membrane cleaning and different pre-treatment technologies in place for RO desalination, such as feed-water pre-treatment and biocides. RO pre-treatment technologies, which include conventional (e.g., coagulation-flocculation, media filtration, disinfection, scale inhibition) and non-conventional (e.g., MF, UF, and NF) are reviewed and their relative attributes are compared. As per the available literature, UF, MF and coagulation-flocculation are considered the most widely used pre-treatment technologies. In addition, this review discusses membrane fouling, which represents a serious challenge in RO processes due to its significant contribution to energy requirements and process economy (e.g., flux decline, permeate quality, membrane lifespan, increased feed pressure, increased pre-treatment and membrane maintenance cost). Different membrane fouling types, such as colloidal, organic, inorganic, and biological fouling, are addressed in this review. Principles of RO process design and the embedded economic and energy considerations are discussed. In general, cost of water desalination has dropped to values that made it a viable option, comparable even to conventional water treatment methods. Finally, an overview of hybrid RO desalination processes and the current challenges faced by RO desalination processes are presented and discussed.
15 May 2018-Applied Energy
TL;DR: In this paper, an enhanced geothermal system with multilateral wells is proposed to extract heat from hot dry rock, where one main wellbore is drilled to hot dry rocks and several injection and production multilateral well are side-tracked from the main well bore in upper and lower formation, respectively.
Abstract: A novel enhanced geothermal system with multilateral wells is proposed to extract heat from hot dry rock in this study. For this EGS, one main wellbore is drilled to hot dry rock. Several injection and production multilateral wells are side-tracked from the main wellbore in upper and lower formation, respectively. An insulated tubing is installed in the main wellbore. The working fluid is injected from the annulus and injection wells and then extracts heat from the hot dry rock reservoir. Subsequently, the working fluid is produced from production wells and returns to surface through the insulated tubing. In this study, an unsteady-state fluid flow and heat transfer 3D model is presented to investigate the heat extraction performance of the multilateral-well EGS. The model is verified by a known analytical solution. The temperature and velocity fields of the multilateral-well EGS are analyzed and heat extraction performances of four various well types are compared. The results indicate that the output thermal power, production temperature, heat extraction ratio and accumulative thermal energy of the multilateral-well EGS are higher than those of conventional double vertical wells EGS. This study provides a better alternative for EGS to obtain greater heat extraction performance.
TL;DR: In this article, a reliability based optimization of TMD parameters in seismic vibration control under bounded uncertain system parameters is presented, where the first-passage probability of failure of the system is taken as the performance objective.
Abstract: A reliability based optimization of Tuned Mass Damper (TMD) parameters in seismic vibration control under bounded uncertain system parameters is presented. The study on TMD with random parameters in a probabilistic framework is noteworthy. But, it cannot be applied when the necessary information about parameters uncertainties is limited. In such cases, the interval method is a viable alternative. Applying matrix perturbation theory through a first order Taylor series expansion about the mean values of the uncertain parameters’ conservative dynamic response bounds are obtained assuming a small degree of parameter uncertainty. The first-passage probability of failure of the system is taken as the performance objective. Using the interval extension of the performance objective, the vibration control problem under bounded uncertainties is transformed to the appropriate deterministic optimization problems yielding the lower and upper bound solutions. A numerical study is performed to elucidate the effect of parameters’ uncertainties on the TMD parameters’ optimization and the safety of the structure.
01 Sep 2015-Water Resources Research
TL;DR: In this article, a review of the literature on hydraulic fracturing fluid migration is presented, and single-phase flow and transport simulations are performed to quantify how much hydraulic fluid is removed via the wellbore with flowback and produced water, how much reaches overlying aquifers, and how much is permanently sequestered by capillary imbibition.
Abstract: Understanding the transport of hydraulic fracturing (HF) fluid that is injected into the deep subsurface for shale gas extraction is important to ensure that shallow drinking water aquifers are not contaminated. Topographically driven flow, overpressured shale reservoirs, permeable pathways such as faults or leaky wellbores, the increased formation pressure due to HF fluid injection, and the density contrast of the HF fluid to the surrounding brine can encourage upward HF fluid migration. In contrast, the very low shale permeability and capillary imbibition of water into partially saturated shale may sequester much of the HF fluid, and well production will remove HF fluid from the subsurface. We review the literature on important aspects of HF fluid migration. Single-phase flow and transport simulations are performed to quantify how much HF fluid is removed via the wellbore with flowback and produced water, how much reaches overlying aquifers, and how much is permanently sequestered by capillary imbibition, which is treated as a sink term based on a semianalytical, one-dimensional solution for two-phase flow. These simulations include all of the important aspects of HF fluid migration identified in the literature review and are performed in five stages to faithfully represent the typical operation of a hydraulically fractured well. No fracturing fluid reaches the aquifer without a permeable pathway. In the presence of a permeable pathway, 10 times more fracturing fluid reaches the aquifer if well production and capillary imbibition are not included in the model.
01 Sep 2018-Transport in Porous Media
TL;DR: In this article, a review of porosity-permeability relations in simulation models on the REV scale is presented, with a focus on the porosity at which the porous medium becomes impermeable.
Abstract: Reactive transport processes in a porous medium will often both cause changes to the pore structure, via precipitation and dissolution of biomass or minerals, and be affected by these changes, via changes to the material’s porosity and permeability. An understanding of the pore structure morphology and the changes to flow parameters during these processes is critical when modeling reactive transport. Commonly applied porosity–permeability relations in simulation models on the REV scale use a power-law relation, often with slight modifications, to describe such features; they are often used for modeling the effects of mineral precipitation and/or dissolution on permeability. To predict the reduction in permeability due to biomass growth, many different and often rather complex relations have been developed and published by a variety of authors. Some authors use exponential or simplified Kozeny–Carman relations. However, many of these relations do not lead to fundamentally different predictions of permeability alteration when compared to a simple power-law relation with a suitable exponent. Exceptions to this general trend are only few of the porosity–permeability relations developed for biomass clogging; these consider a residual permeability even when the pore space is completely filled with biomass. Other exceptions are relations that consider a critical porosity at which the porous medium becomes impermeable; this is often used when modeling the effect of mineral precipitation. This review first defines the scale on which porosity–permeability relations are typically used and aims at explaining why these relations are not unique. It shows the variety of existing approaches and concludes with their essential features.