scispace - formally typeset

Author

Abraham Savitzky

Bio: Abraham Savitzky is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Instrumentation (computer programming) & Iteratively reweighted least squares. The author has an hindex of 2, co-authored 3 publication(s) receiving 15235 citation(s).
Papers
More filters


Cited by
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper investigates two fundamental problems in computer vision: contour detection and image segmentation and presents state-of-the-art algorithms for both of these tasks.
Abstract: This paper investigates two fundamental problems in computer vision: contour detection and image segmentation. We present state-of-the-art algorithms for both of these tasks. Our contour detector combines multiple local cues into a globalization framework based on spectral clustering. Our segmentation algorithm consists of generic machinery for transforming the output of any contour detector into a hierarchical region tree. In this manner, we reduce the problem of image segmentation to that of contour detection. Extensive experimental evaluation demonstrates that both our contour detection and segmentation methods significantly outperform competing algorithms. The automatically generated hierarchical segmentations can be interactively refined by user-specified annotations. Computation at multiple image resolutions provides a means of coupling our system to recognition applications.

4,329 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Norma J. Greenfield1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: This protocol details the basic steps of obtaining and interpreting CD data, and methods for analyzing spectra to estimate the secondary structural composition of proteins.
Abstract: Circular dichroism (CD) is an excellent tool for rapid determination of the secondary structure and folding properties of proteins that have been obtained using recombinant techniques or purified from tissues. The most widely used applications of protein CD are to determine whether an expressed, purified protein is folded, or if a mutation affects its conformation or stability. In addition, it can be used to study protein interactions. This protocol details the basic steps of obtaining and interpreting CD data, and methods for analyzing spectra to estimate the secondary structural composition of proteins. CD has the advantage that measurements may be made on multiple samples containing < or =20 microg of proteins in physiological buffers in a few hours. However, it does not give the residue-specific information that can be obtained by x-ray crystallography or NMR.

2,563 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Johan Trygg1, Svante Wold1Institutions (1)
Abstract: A generic preprocessing method for multivariate data, called orthogonal projections to latent structures (O-PLS), is described. O-PLS removes variation from X (descriptor variables) that is not correlated to Y (property variables, e.g. yield, cost or toxicity). In mathematical terms this is equivalent to removing systematic variation in X that is orthogonal to Y. In an earlier paper, Wold et al. (Chemometrics Intell. Lab. Syst. 1998; 44: 175-185) described orthogonal signal correction (OSC). In this paper a method with the same objective but with different means is described. The proposed O-PLS method analyzes the variation explained in each PLS component. The non-correlated systematic variation in X is removed, making interpretation of the resulting PLS model easier and with the additional benefit that the non-correlated variation itself can be analyzed further. As an example, near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectra of wood chips were analyzed. Applying O-PLS resulted in reduced model complexity with preserved prediction ability, effective removal of non-correlated variation in X and, not least, improved interpretational ability of both correlated and non-correlated variation in the NIR spectra.

1,916 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Whole-genome analysis indicates that this class of proteins is ancient and has undergone considerable functional divergence prior to the emergence of the major divisions of life.
Abstract: Using a combination of computer methods for iterative database searches and multiple sequence alignment, we show that protein sequences related to the AAA family of ATPases are far more prevalent than reported previously. Among these are regulatory components of Lon and Clp proteases, proteins involved in DNA replication, recombination, and restriction (including subunits of the origin recognition complex, replication factor C proteins, MCM DNA-licensing factors and the bacterial DnaA, RuvB, and McrB proteins), prokaryotic NtrC-related transcription regulators, the Bacillus sporulation protein SpoVJ, Mg2+, and Co2+ chelatases, the Halobacterium GvpN gas vesicle synthesis protein, dynein motor proteins, TorsinA, and Rubisco activase. Alignment of these sequences, in light of the structures of the clamp loader delta' subunit of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III and the hexamerization component of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein, provides structural and mechanistic insights into these proteins, collectively designated the AAA+ class. Whole-genome analysis indicates that this class is ancient and has undergone considerable functional divergence prior to the emergence of the major divisions of life. These proteins often perform chaperone-like functions that assist in the assembly, operation, or disassembly of protein complexes. The hexameric architecture often associated with this class can provide a hole through which DNA or RNA can be thread; this may be important for assembly or remodeling of DNA-protein complexes.

1,774 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Gary H. Glover1, Tie-Qiang Li1, David Ress1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: The RETROICOR method is found to perform well for both respiration‐ and cardiac‐induced noise without imposing spatial filtering on the correction.
Abstract: Respiration effects and cardiac pulsatility can induce signal modulations in functional MR image time series that increase noise and degrade the statistical significance of activation signals. A simple image-based correction method is described that does not have the limitations of k-space methods that preclude high spatial frequency correction. Low-order Fourier series are fit to the image data based on time of each image acquisition relative to the phase of the cardiac and respiratory cycles, monitored using a photoplethysmograph and pneumatic belt, respectively. The RETROICOR method is demonstrated using resting-state experiments on three subjects and compared with the k-space method. The method is found to perform well for both respiration- and cardiac-induced noise without imposing spatial filtering on the correction. Magn Reson Med 44:162‐167, 2000. © 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

1,715 citations


Performance
Metrics

Author's H-index: 2

No. of papers from the Author in previous years
YearPapers
19891
19641
19581