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Adam Millard-Ball

Bio: Adam Millard-Ball is an academic researcher from University of California, Santa Cruz. The author has contributed to research in topics: Emissions trading & Parking guidance and information. The author has an hindex of 25, co-authored 77 publications receiving 2652 citations. Previous affiliations of Adam Millard-Ball include McGill University & Stanford University.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors decompose passenger transport energy use into activity, modal structure and modal energy intensity, and show that increases in total activity (passenger travel) have been the driving force behind increased energy use, offset somewhat by declining energy intensity.

341 citations

01 Jan 2005
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present the current and potential roles of car-sharing in enhancing mobility as part of the transportation system, characteristics of car sharing members and neighborhoods where car sharing has been established, environmental, economic, and social impacts of carsharing, and ways in which partner organizations have tried to promote carsharing; Barriers to carsharing and ways to mitigate these barriers.
Abstract: This report will be of interest to individuals, organizations, and communities who are interested in knowing more about car-sharing and to those who may want to introduce car-sharing as a new mobility alternative. The report is a substantive resource with considerable information and useful tools for the development and implementation of car-sharing services. The report presents findings on the following: Current and potential roles of car-sharing in enhancing mobility as part of the transportation system; Characteristics of car-sharing members and neighborhoods where car-sharing has been established; Environmental, economic, and social impacts of car-sharing; Ways in which partner organizations have tried to promote car-sharing; Barriers to car-sharing and ways to mitigate these barriers; and Procurement methods and evaluation techniques for achieving car-sharing goals.

289 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
10 Aug 2017-PLOS ONE
TL;DR: Two complementary, independent methods are used to assess the completeness of OSM road data in each country in the world and find that globally, OSM is ∼83% complete, and more than 40% of countries—including several in the developing world—have a fully mapped street network.
Abstract: OpenStreetMap, a crowdsourced geographic database, provides the only global-level, openly licensed source of geospatial road data, and the only national-level source in many countries. However, researchers, policy makers, and citizens who want to make use of OpenStreetMap (OSM) have little information about whether it can be relied upon in a particular geographic setting. In this paper, we use two complementary, independent methods to assess the completeness of OSM road data in each country in the world. First, we undertake a visual assessment of OSM data against satellite imagery, which provides the input for estimates based on a multilevel regression and poststratification model. Second, we fit sigmoid curves to the cumulative length of contributions, and use them to estimate the saturation level for each country. Both techniques may have more general use for assessing the development and saturation of crowd-sourced data. Our results show that in many places, researchers and policymakers can rely on the completeness of OSM, or will soon be able to do so. We find (i) that globally, OSM is ∼83% complete, and more than 40% of countries-including several in the developing world-have a fully mapped street network; (ii) that well-governed countries with good Internet access tend to be more complete, and that completeness has a U-shaped relationship with population density-both sparsely populated areas and dense cities are the best mapped; and (iii) that existing global datasets used by the World Bank undercount roads by more than 30%.

259 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Game theory is used to analyze the interactions between pedestrians and autonomous vehicles, with a focus on yielding at crosswalks, and suggests that pedestrians will be able to behave with impunity and autonomous vehicle adoption may facilitate a shift toward pedestrian-oriented urban neighborhoods.
Abstract: Autonomous vehicles, popularly known as self-driving cars, have the potential to transform travel behavior However, existing analyses have ignored strategic interactions with other road users In

233 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The first long-run, high-resolution time series of street-network sprawl in the United States from 1920 to 2012 is constructed and it is found that even in the absence of a coordinated policy effort, new developments have already turned the corner toward less sprawl.
Abstract: The urban street network is one of the most permanent features of cities. Once laid down, the pattern of streets determines urban form and the level of sprawl for decades to come. We present a high-resolution time series of urban sprawl, as measured through street network connectivity, in the United States from 1920 to 2012. Sprawl started well before private car ownership was dominant and grew steadily until the mid-1990s. Over the last two decades, however, new streets have become significantly more connected and grid-like; the peak in street-network sprawl in the United States occurred in ∼ 1994. By one measure of connectivity, the mean nodal degree of intersections, sprawl fell by ∼ 9% between 1994 and 2012. We analyze spatial variation in these changes and demonstrate the persistence of sprawl. Places that were built with a low-connectivity street network tend to stay that way, even as the network expands. We also find suggestive evidence that local government policies impact sprawl, as the largest increases in connectivity have occurred in places with policies to promote gridded streets and similar New Urbanist design principles. We provide for public use a county-level version of our street-network sprawl dataset comprising a time series of nearly 100 y.

138 citations


Cited by
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01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: The modern applied statistics with s is universally compatible with any devices to read, and is available in the digital library an online access to it is set as public so you can download it instantly.
Abstract: Thank you very much for downloading modern applied statistics with s. As you may know, people have search hundreds times for their favorite readings like this modern applied statistics with s, but end up in harmful downloads. Rather than reading a good book with a cup of coffee in the afternoon, instead they cope with some harmful virus inside their laptop. modern applied statistics with s is available in our digital library an online access to it is set as public so you can download it instantly. Our digital library saves in multiple countries, allowing you to get the most less latency time to download any of our books like this one. Kindly say, the modern applied statistics with s is universally compatible with any devices to read.

5,249 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 1982
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss leading problems linked to energy that the world is now confronting and propose some ideas concerning possible solutions, and conclude that it is necessary to pursue actively the development of coal, natural gas, and nuclear power.
Abstract: This chapter discusses leading problems linked to energy that the world is now confronting and to propose some ideas concerning possible solutions. Oil deserves special attention among all energy sources. Since the beginning of 1981, it has merely been continuing and enhancing the downward movement in consumption and prices caused by excessive rises, especially for light crudes such as those from Africa, and the slowing down of worldwide economic growth. Densely-populated oil-producing countries need to produce to live, to pay for their food and their equipment. If the economic growth of the industrialized countries were to be 4%, even if investment in the rational use of energy were pushed to the limit and the development of nonpetroleum energy sources were also pursued actively, it would be extremely difficult to prevent a sharp rise in prices. It is evident that it is absolutely necessary to pursue actively the development of coal, natural gas, and nuclear power if a physical shortage of energy is not to block economic growth.

2,283 citations

Book ChapterDOI
15 Feb 2011

1,876 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is argued that an “applied forward reasoning” approach is better suited for social scientists seeking to address climate change, which is characterized as a “super wicked” problem comprising four key features: time is running out, those who cause the problem also seek to provide a solution, the central authority needed to address it is weak or non-existent, and policy responses discount the future irrationally.
Abstract: Most policy-relevant work on climate change in the social sciences either analyzes costs and benefits of particular policy options against important but often narrow sets of objectives or attempts to explain past successes or failures. We argue that an “applied forward reasoning” approach is better suited for social scientists seeking to address climate change, which we characterize as a “super wicked” problem comprising four key features: time is running out; those who cause the problem also seek to provide a solution; the central authority needed to address it is weak or non-existent; and, partly as a result, policy responses discount the future irrationally. These four features combine to create a policy-making “tragedy” where traditional analytical techniques are ill equipped to identify solutions, even when it is well recognized that actions must take place soon to avoid catastrophic future impacts. To overcome this tragedy, greater attention must be given to the generation of path-dependent policy interventions that can “constrain our future collective selves.” Three diagnostic questions result that orient policy analysis toward understanding how to trigger sticky interventions that, through progressive incremental trajectories, entrench support over time while expanding the populations they cover. Drawing especially from the literature on path dependency, but inverting it to develop policy responses going forward, we illustrate the plausibility of our framework for identifying new areas of research and new ways to think about policy interventions to address super wicked problems.

1,013 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that firms could effectively reduce their carbon emissions without significantly increasing their costs by making only operational adjustments and by collaborating with other members of their supply chain.
Abstract: Using relatively simple and widely used models, we illustrate how carbon emission concerns could be integrated into operational decision-making with regard to procurement, production, and inventory management. We show how, by associating carbon emission parameters with various decision variables, traditional models can be modified to support decision-making that accounts for both cost and carbon footprint. We examine how the values of these parameters as well as the parameters of regulatory emission control policies affect cost and emissions. We use the models to study the extent to which carbon reduction requirements can be addressed by operational adjustments, as an alternative (or a supplement) to costly investments in carbon-reducing technologies. We also use the models to investigate the impact of collaboration among firms within the same supply chain on their costs and carbon emissions and study the incentives firms might have in seeking such cooperation. We provide a series of insights that highlight the impact of operational decisions on carbon emissions and the importance of operational models in evaluating the impact of different regulatory policies and in assessing the benefits of investments in more carbon efficient technologies. Note to Practitioners-Firms worldwide, responding to the threat of government legislation or to concerns raised by their own consumers or shareholders, are undertaking initiatives to reduce their carbon footprint. It is the conventional thinking that such initiatives will require either capital investments or a switch to more expensive sources of energy or input material. In this paper, we show that firms could effectively reduce their carbon emissions without significantly increasing their costs by making only operational adjustments and by collaborating with other members of their supply chain. We describe optimization models that can be used by firms to support operational decision making and supply chain collaboration, while taking into account carbon emissions. We analyze the effect of different emission regulations, including strict emission caps, taxes on emissions, cap-and-offset, and cap-and-trade, on supply chain management decisions. In particular, we show that the presence of emission regulation can significantly increase the value of supply chain collaboration.

1,007 citations