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Adam T. Woolley

Bio: Adam T. Woolley is an academic researcher from Brigham Young University. The author has contributed to research in topics: DNA origami & Capillary electrophoresis. The author has an hindex of 53, co-authored 175 publications receiving 12611 citations. Previous affiliations of Adam T. Woolley include Harvard University & Affymetrix.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
02 Jul 1998-Nature
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors demonstrate that nanotube tips with the capability of chemical and biological discrimination can be created with acidic functionality and by coupling basic or hydrophobic functionalities or biomolecular probes to the carboxyl groups that are present at the open tip ends.
Abstract: Carbon nanotubes combine a range of properties that make them well suited for use as probe tips in applications such as atomic force microscopy (AFM)1,2,3. Their high aspect ratio, for example, opens up the possibility of probing the deep crevices4 that occur in microelectronic circuits, and the small effective radius of nanotube tips significantly improves the lateral resolution beyond what can be achieved using commercial silicon tips5. Another characteristic feature of nanotubes is their ability to buckle elastically4,6, which makes them very robust while limiting the maximum force that is applied to delicate organic and biological samples. Earlier investigations into the performance of nanotubes as scanning probe microscopy tips have focused on topographical imaging, but a potentially more significant issue is the question of whether nanotubes can be modified to create probes that can sense and manipulate matter at the molecular level7. Here we demonstrate that nanotube tips with the capability of chemical and biological discrimination can be created with acidic functionality and by coupling basic or hydrophobic functionalities or biomolecular probes to the carboxyl groups that are present at the open tip ends. We have used these modified nanotubes as AFM tips to titrate the acid and base groups, to image patterned samples based on molecular interactions, and to measure the binding force between single protein–ligand pairs. As carboxyl groups are readily derivatized by a variety of reactions8, the preparation of a wide range of functionalized nanotube tips should be possible, thus creating molecular probes with potential applications in many areas of chemistry and biology.

1,374 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The feasibility of performing high-speed DNA analyses in microfabricated integrated fluidic systems is established, demonstrating that challenging amplifications of diagnostically interesting targets can also be performed.
Abstract: Microfabricated silicon PCR reactors and glass capillary electrophoresis (CE) chips have been successfully coupled to form an integrated DNA analysis system. This construct combines the rapid thermal cycling capabilities of microfabricated PCR devices (10 °C/s heating, 2.5 °C/s cooling) with the high-speed (<120 s) DNA separations provided by microfabricated CE chips. The PCR chamber and the CE chip were directly linked through a photolithographically fabricated channel filled with hydroxyethylcellulose sieving matrix. Electrophoretic injection directly from the PCR chamber through the cross injection channel was used as an “electrophoretic valve” to couple the PCR and CE devices on-chip. To demonstrate the functionality of this system, a 15 min PCR amplification of a β-globin target cloned in M13 was immediately followed by high-speed CE chip separation in under 120 s, providing a rapid PCR−CE analysis in under 20 min. A rapid assay for genomic Salmonella DNA was performed in under 45 min, demonstrating ...

870 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The successful demonstration of electrophoresis and electroosmotic pumping in a microfluidic device provided a nonmechanical method for both fluid control and separation, and integration of multiple processes can be highly enabling for many applications.
Abstract: Microfluidics consist of microfabricated structures for liquid handling, with cross-sections in the 1–500 μm range, and small volume capacity (fL-nL) Capillary tubes connected with fittings,1 although utilizing small volumes, are not considered microfluidics for the purposes of this paper since they are not microfabricated Likewise, millifluidic systems, made by conventional machining tools, are excluded due to their larger feature sizes (>500 μm) Though micromachined systems for gas chromatography were introduced in the 1970’s,2 the field of microfluidics did not gain much traction until the 1990’s3 Silicon and glass were the original materials used, but then the focus shifted to include polymer substrates, and in particular, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Since then the field has grown to encompass a wide variety of materials and applications The successful demonstration of electrophoresis and electroosmotic pumping in a microfluidic device provided a nonmechanical method for both fluid control and separation4 Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) enabled sensitive detection of fluorophores or fluorescently labeled molecules The expanded availability of low-cost printing allowed for cheaper and quicker mask fabrication for use in soft lithography5 Commercial microfluidic systems are now available from Abbott, Agilent, Caliper, Dolomite, Micralyne, Microfluidic Chip Shop, Micrux Technologies and Waters, as a few prominent examples For a more thorough description of the history of microfluidics, we refer the reader to a number of comprehensive, specialized reviews,3, 6–11 as well as a more general 2006 review12 The field of microfluidics offers many advantages compared to carrying out processes through bulk solution chemistry, the first of which relates to a lesson taught to every first-year chemistry student Simply stated, diffusion is slow! Thus, the smaller the distance required for interaction, the faster it will be Smaller channel dimensions also lead to smaller sample volumes (fL-nL), which can reduce the amount of sample or reagents required for testing and analysis Reduced dimensions can also lead to portable devices to enable on-site testing (provided the associated hardware is similarly portable) Finally, integration of multiple processes (like labeling, purification, separation and detection) in a microfluidic device can be highly enabling for many applications Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) contain integrated electrical and mechanical parts that create a sensor or system Applications of MEMS are ubiquitous, including automobiles, phones, video games and medical and biological sensors13 Micro-total analysis systems, also known as labs-on-a-chip, are the chemical analogue of MEMS, as integrated microfluidic devices that are capable of automating multiple processes relevant to laboratory sciences For example, a typical lab-on-a-chip system might selectively purify a complex mixture (through filtering, antibody capture, etc), then separate target components and detect them Microfluidic devices consist of a core of common components Areas defined by empty space, such as reservoirs (wells), chambers and microchannels, are central to microfluidic systems Positive features, created by areas of solid material, add increased functionality to a chip and can consist of membranes, monoliths, pneumatic controls, beams and pillars Given the ubiquitous nature of negative components, and microchannels in particular, we focus here on a few of their properties Microfluidic channels have small overall volumes, laminar flow and a large surface-to-volume ratio Dimensions of a typical separation channel in microchip electrophoresis (μCE) are: 50 μm width, 15 μm height and 5 cm length for a volume of 375 nL Flow in these devices is normally nonturbulent due to low Reynolds numbers For example, water flowing at 20°C in the above channel at 1 μL/min (222 cm/s) results in a Reynolds number of ~05, where <2000 is laminar flow Since flow is nonturbulent, mixing is normally diffusion-limited Small channel sizes also have a high surface-to-volume ratio, leading to different characteristics from what are commonly found in bulk volumes The material surface can be used to manipulate fluid movement (such as by electroosmotic flow, EOF) and surface interactions For a solution in contact with a charged surface, a double layer of charge is created as oppositely charged ions are attracted to the surface charges This electrical double layer consists of an inner rigid or Stern Layer and an outer diffuse layer An electrostatic potential known as the zeta potential is formed, with the magnitude of the potential decreasing as distance from the surface increases The electrical double layer is the basis for EOF, wherein an applied voltage causes the loosely bound diffuse layer to move towards an electrode, dragging the bulk solution along Charges on the exposed surface also exert a greater influence on the fluid in a channel as its size decreases Larger surface-to-volume ratios are more prone to nonspecific adsorption and surface fouling In particular, non-charged and hydrophobic microdevice surfaces can cause proteins in solution to denature and stick We focus our review on advances in microfluidic systems since 2008 In doing this, we occasionally must cover foundational work in microfluidics that is considerably less recent We do not focus on chemical synthesis applications of microfluidics although it is an expanding area, nor do we delve into lithography, device fabrication or production costs Our specific emphasis herein is on four areas within microfluidics: properties and applications of commonly used materials, basic functions, integration, and selected applications For each of these four topics we provide a concluding section on opportunities for future development, and at the end of this review, we offer general conclusions and prospective for future work in the field Due to the considerable scope of the field of microfluidics, we limit our discussion to selected examples from each area, but cite in-depth reviews for the reader to turn to for further information about specific topics We also refer the reader to recent comprehensive reviews on advances in lab-on-a-chip systems by Arora et al10 and Kovarik et al14

736 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Methods for high-speed, high-throughput DNA separations on capillary array electrophoresis chips are established and high-resolution electrophoretic separations of phi X174 Hae III DNA restriction fragments are performed using a hydroxyethyl cellulose sieving matrix in the channels.
Abstract: Capillary electrophoresis arrays have been fabricated on planar glass substrates by photolithographic masking and chemical etching techniques The photolithographically defined channel patterns were etched in a glass substrate, and then capillaries were formed by thermally bonding the etched substrate to a second glass slide High-resolution electrophoretic separations of phi X174 Hae III DNA restriction fragments have been performed with these chips using a hydroxyethyl cellulose sieving matrix in the channels DNA fragments were fluorescently labeled with dye in the running buffer and detected with a laser-excited, confocal fluorescence system The effects of variations in the electric field, procedures for injection, and sizes of separation and injection channels (ranging from 30 to 120 microns) have been explored By use of channels with an effective length of only 35 cm, separations of phi X174 Hae II DNA fragments from approximately 70 to 1000 bp are complete in only 120 sec We have also demonstrated high-speed sizing of PCR-amplified HLA-DQ alpha alleles This work establishes methods for high-speed, high-throughput DNA separations on capillary array electrophoresis chips

699 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The feasibility of high-speed, high-throughput DNA sequencing using capillary array electrophoresis chips is established and the prospects for enhancing the resolution and sensitivity of these chip separations are discussed.
Abstract: DNA sequencing has been performed on microfabricated capillary electrophoresis chips. DNA separations were achieved in 50 x 8 microns cross-section channels microfabricated in a 2 in. x 3 in. glass sandwich structure using a denaturing 9% T, 0% C polyacrylamide sieving medium. DNA sequencing fragment ladders were produced and fluorescently labeled using the recently developed energy transfer dye-labeled primers. Sequencing extension fragments were separated to approximately 433 bases in only 10 min using a one-color detection system and an effective separation distance of only 3.5 cm. Using a four-color labeling and detection format, DNA sequencing with 97% accuracy and single-base resolution to approximately 150 bases was achieved in only 540 s. A resolution of greater than 0.5 was obtained out to 200 bases for both the one- and four-color separations. The prospects for enhancing the resolution and sensitivity of these chip separations are discussed. This work establishes the feasibility of high-speed, high-throughput DNA sequencing using capillary array electrophoresis chips.

580 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
02 Aug 2002-Science
TL;DR: Many potential applications have been proposed for carbon nanotubes, including conductive and high-strength composites; energy storage and energy conversion devices; sensors; field emission displays and radiation sources; hydrogen storage media; and nanometer-sized semiconductor devices, probes, and interconnects.
Abstract: Many potential applications have been proposed for carbon nanotubes, including conductive and high-strength composites; energy storage and energy conversion devices; sensors; field emission displays and radiation sources; hydrogen storage media; and nanometer-sized semiconductor devices, probes, and interconnects. Some of these applications are now realized in products. Others are demonstrated in early to advanced devices, and one, hydrogen storage, is clouded by controversy. Nanotube cost, polydispersity in nanotube type, and limitations in processing and assembly methods are important barriers for some applications of single-walled nanotubes.

9,693 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
28 Jan 2000-Science
TL;DR: The nanotubes sensors exhibit a fast response and a substantially higher sensitivity than that of existing solid-state sensors at room temperature and the mechanisms of molecular sensing with nanotube molecular wires are investigated.
Abstract: Chemical sensors based on individual single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are demonstrated. Upon exposure to gaseous molecules such as NO 2 or NH 3 , the electrical resistance of a semiconducting SWNT is found to dramatically increase or decrease. This serves as the basis for nanotube molecular sensors. The nanotube sensors exhibit a fast response and a substantially higher sensitivity than that of existing solid-state sensors at room temperature. Sensor reversibility is achieved by slow recovery under ambient conditions or by heating to high temperatures. The interactions between molecular species and SWNTs and the mechanisms of molecular sensing with nanotube molecular wires are investigated.

5,908 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A procedure that makes it possible to design and fabricate microfluidic systems in an elastomeric material poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) in less than 24 h by fabricating a miniaturized capillary electrophoresis system is described.
Abstract: This paper describes a procedure that makes it possible to design and fabricate (including sealing) microfluidic systems in an elastomeric materialpoly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)in less than 24 h. A network of microfluidic channels (with width >20 μm) is designed in a CAD program. This design is converted into a transparency by a high-resolution printer; this transparency is used as a mask in photolithography to create a master in positive relief photoresist. PDMS cast against the master yields a polymeric replica containing a network of channels. The surface of this replica, and that of a flat slab of PDMS, are oxidized in an oxygen plasma. These oxidized surfaces seal tightly and irreversibly when brought into conformal contact. Oxidized PDMS also seals irreversibly to other materials used in microfluidic systems, such as glass, silicon, silicon oxide, and oxidized polystyrene; a number of substrates for devices are, therefore, practical options. Oxidation of the PDMS has the additional advantage that it ...

5,491 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of recent advances in carbon nanotubes and their composites can be found in this article, where the authors examine the research work reported in the literature on the structure and processing of carbon Nanotubes.

4,709 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Nathaniel L. Rosi focuses on the rational assembly of DNA-modified nanostructures into larger-scale materials and their roles in biodiagnostic screening for nucleic acids.
Abstract: In the last 10 years the field of molecular diagnostics has witnessed an explosion of interest in the use of nanomaterials in assays for gases, metal ions, and DNA and protein markers for many diseases. Intense research has been fueled by the need for practical, robust, and highly sensitive and selective detection agents that can address the deficiencies of conventional technologies. Chemists are playing an important role in designing and fabricating new materials for application in diagnostic assays. In certain cases assays based upon nanomaterials have offered significant advantages over conventional diagnostic systems with regard to assay sensitivity, selectivity, and practicality. Some of these new methods have recently been reviewed elsewhere with a focus on the materials themselves or as subclassifications in more generalized overviews of biological applications of nanomaterials.1-7 We intend to review some of the major advances and milestones in the field of detection systems based upon nanomaterials and their roles in biodiagnostic screening for nucleic acids, * To whom correspondence should be addressed. Phone: 847-4913907. Fax: 847-467-5123. E-mail: chadnano@northwestern.edu. Nathaniel L. Rosi earned his B.A. degree at Grinnell College (1999) and his Ph.D. degree from the University of Michigan (2003), where he studied the design, synthesis, and gas storage applications of metal−organic frameworks under the guidance of Professor Omar M. Yaghi. In 2003 he began postdoctoral studies as a member of Professor Mirkin’s group at Northwestern University. His current research focuses on the rational assembly of DNA-modified nanostructures into larger-scale materials.

4,308 citations