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Author

Adnan Ibrahem Salih

Bio: Adnan Ibrahem Salih is an academic researcher from University of Kirkuk. The author has contributed to research in topics: Optical burst switching & Block cipher. The author has an hindex of 2, co-authored 5 publications receiving 20 citations.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The proposed algorithm is resistant to different attacks, such as differential and statistical attacks, and yields good results in terms of key sensitivity, hiding capacity, quality index, MSE, PSNR and image fidelity.
Abstract: In steganography, secret data are invisible in cover media, such as text, audio, video and image. Hence, attackers have no knowledge of the original message contained in the media or which algorithm is used to embed or extract such message. Image steganography is a branch of steganography in which secret data are hidden in host images. In this study, image steganography using least significant bit and secret map techniques is performed by applying 3D chaotic maps, namely, 3D Chebyshev and 3D logistic maps, to obtain high security. This technique is based on the concept of performing random insertion and selecting a pixel from a host image. The proposed algorithm is comprehensively evaluated on the basis of different criteria, such as correlation coefficient, information entropy, homogeneity, contrast, image, histogram, key sensitivity, hiding capacity, quality index, mean square error (MSE), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and image fidelity. Results show that the proposed algorithm satisfies all the aforementioned criteria and is superior to other previous methods. Hence, it is efficient in hiding secret data and preserving the good visual quality of stego images. The proposed algorithm is resistant to different attacks, such as differential and statistical attacks, and yields good results in terms of key sensitivity, hiding capacity, quality index, MSE, PSNR and image fidelity.

32 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An update to the conventional OBS model in the NCTUns-6.0 simulator, in which the proposed random wavelength assignment technique (RWAT) enables the POBS to yield higher throughput compared to the existing SWAT and the OBS conventional technique.
Abstract: Optical burst switching (OBS) is proposed as suitable switching architectures for directly transporting traffic over a bufferless wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks. Parallel optical burst switching (POBS) is a variant of the OBS model that takes this concept further by transmitting data bursts wavelength and time dimensions. However, there is a lack of simulator that simulates POBS networks. This paper presents an update to the conventional OBS model in the NCTUns-6.0 simulator ($$\hbox {NCTU}_{\mathrm{ns}\text {-}\mathrm{POBS}}$$NCTUns-POBS). The $$\hbox {NCTU}_{\mathrm{ns}\text {-}\mathrm{POBS}}$$NCTUns-POBS tool is capable of simulating POBS networks for ultra-dense WDM. It analyzes the features of POBS networks, enables to adjust the parameters of POBS networks and enhances their switching technology. To test and validate the performance of the tool, the proposed random wavelength assignment technique (RWAT) is compared with the existing sequential wavelength assignment technique (SWAT) of the POBS model and the conventional OBS model. The results of the simulation show that, the $$\hbox {NCTU}_{\mathrm{ns}\text {-}\mathrm{POBS}}$$NCTUns-POBS successfully simulates the POBS networks in which the proposed RWAT enables the POBS to yield higher throughput compared to the existing SWAT and the OBS conventional technique.

5 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The fixed XOR operation in AES rounds is replaced with a dual dynamic XOR table by using a 3D chaotic map and results show that the proposed method is better than the original AES.
Abstract: An efficient approach to secure information is critically needed at present. Cryptography remains the best approach to achieve security. On this basis, the national institute of standards and technology (NIST) selected Rijndael, which is a symmetric block cipher, as the advanced encryption standard (AES). The MixColumns transformation of this cipher is the most important function within the linear unit and the major source of diffusion. Dynamic MixColumns transformation can be used to enhance the AES security. In this study, a method to enhance the AES security is developed on the basis of two methods. The first method is an extension of a previous study entitled “A novel Approach for Enhancing Security of Advance Encryption Standard using Private XOR Table and 3D chaotic regarding to Software quality Factor.” In the current study, the fixed XOR operation in AES rounds is replaced with a dual dynamic XOR table by using a 3D chaotic map. The dual dynamic XOR table is based on 4 bits; one is used for even rounds, and the other is used for odd rounds. The second method is dynamic MixColumns transformation, where the maximum distance separable (MDS) matrix of the MixColumns transformation, which is fixed and public in every round, is changed with a dynamic MDS matrix, which is private, by using a 3D chaotic map. A 3D chaotic map is used to generate secret keys. These replacements enhance the AES security, particularly the resistance against attacks. Diehard and NIST tests, entropy, correlation coefficient, and histogram are used for security analysis of the proposed method. C++ is used to implement the proposed and original algorithms. MATLAB and LINX are used for the security analysis. Results show that the proposed method is better than the original AES.

3 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined the power consumption in both the OBS and POBS technologies when used in the core network and found that the use of POBS can provide significant saving in energy as compared to the use in OBS.
Abstract: Greening the Internet has recently become one of the main challenges for the research community due to economic and environmental reasons. In this context, optical technology can offer an energy efficient solution. As such it is interesting to examine Optical Burst Switching (OBS) network that provides an avenue for reducing energy consumption by significantly reducing the amount of header processing in the core switch. A variant of OBS, which is known as Parallel Optical Burst Switching (POBS), takes this concept further by transmitting bursts in two dimensions: the wavelength dimension and the time dimension. Consequently, this study investigates the power consumption in both the OBS and POBS technologies when used in the core network. The simulation results show that in the core network, the use of POBS can provide significant saving in energy as compared to the use of OBS. Furthermore, the use of POBS can lower the power consumption and the number of packets dropped in the network when appropriate parameter settings are used, particularly the burstification time and waveband granularity.

1 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The simulation results show that the use of POBS network with the proposed Reactive Odd/Even Node ID Wavelength Assignment Technique (POBS-ROENIDWAT) shows a better performance in terms of reduced data loss rate and increased throughput compared to the performances of both POBSnetwork with Sequential Wavelength assignment technique ( POBS-SWAT) and OBS networkWith Burst Segmentation (OBS- BS).
Abstract: Parallel Optical Burst Switching (POBS) is a variant of Optical Burst Switching (OBS) which is proposed as a new optical switching strategy for Ultra-Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (U-DWDM) to support the enormous bandwidth demand of the next generation Internet. As opposed to OBS, POBS transmits bursts in two dimensions: the wavelength dimension and the time dimension. POBS network uses an one-way resource reservation mechanism to set up the resources for each data burst transmission. The use of this mechanism may cause bursts to contend for the same resources at the same time at core (intermediate) nodes of the network. Therefore, the performance of POBS networks depends on the contention resolution policies to reach acceptable levels for bandwidth usage. These policies may increase both the cost and complexities of the core nodes in POBS networks. Most literatures on OBS networks apply contention resolution at the core nodes based on reactive strategies that are activated after contention takes place in core nodes. This study proposes the use of a proactive contention resolution technique at ingress nodes of POBS network as well as reactive contention resolution technique at core nodes for reducing the probability of burst drop in the network in order to increase the performance of the network. The simulation results show that the use of POBS network with the proposed Reactive Odd/Even Node ID Wavelength Assignment Technique (POBS-ROENIDWAT) shows a better performance in terms of reduced data loss rate and increased throughput compared to the performances of both POBS network with Sequential Wavelength Assignment Technique (POBS-SWAT) and OBS network with Burst Segmentation (OBS- BS).

Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed an image steganography procedure by utilizing the combination of various algorithms that build the security of the secret data by utilizing Binary bit-plane decomposition (BBPD) based image encryption technique.
Abstract: Internet of Things (IoT) is a domain where the transfer of big data is taking place every single second. The security of these data is a challenging task; however, security challenges can be mitigated with cryptography and steganography techniques. These techniques are crucial when dealing with user authentication and data privacy. In the proposed work, a highly secured technique is proposed using IoT protocol and steganography. This work proposes an image steganography procedure by utilizing the combination of various algorithms that build the security of the secret data by utilizing Binary bit-plane decomposition (BBPD) based image encryption technique. Thereafter a Salp Swarm Optimization Algorithm (SSOA) based adaptive embedding process is proposed to increase the payload capacity by setting different parameters in the steganographic embedding function for edge and smooth blocks. Here the SSOA algorithm is used to localize the edge and smooth blocks efficiently. Then, the hybrid Fuzzy Neural Network with a backpropagation learning algorithm is used to enhance the quality of the stego images. Then these stego images are transferred to the destination in the highly secured protocol of IoT. The proposed steganography technique shows better results in terms of security, image quality, and payload capacity in comparison with the existing state of art methods.

45 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This method provides high imperceptibility and robustness against various attacks compared with state-of-the-art algorithms and is flexible for using different sizes of text watermarks and it guarantees a high payload capacity.
Abstract: Nowadays, secure medical data transmission is an essential issue in telemedicine through unsecured channels. Watermarking methods are widely used to provide optimal security for medical image transmission. In this method, a secure and blind watermarking algorithm based on Integer Wavelet Transform (IWT), Least Significant Bit (LSB), and chaotic sequences (ILC) with a high capacity for grayscale medical and non-medical images is ILC. In this scheme, the high-level security is achieved by chaotic sequences that are applied for watermark encryption and determining the location of host blocks and host coefficients in the embedding process. At first, the cover medical image is divided into two distinct parts: the region of interest (ROI) and the region of non-interest (RONI) areas. Due to the high sensitivity of the ROI data in disease diagnosis, no embedding is done in this area. An ROI integrity check data (ICR), produced by some significant features from ROI, to detect tampered blocks inside this area. The main watermark, which is the encryption of ICR along with the patient’s personal and medical information, is embedded in the middle-frequency at the first and second levels of IWT sub-bands. Furthermore, to verify the watermark, integrity check data (ICW) is produced and sent along with other essential data to the receiver. For identifying authentication purposes, the physician’s signature is embedded at the third level (LL3) sub-band of IWT which has the highest energy and robustness. Moreover, the algorithm is flexible for using different sizes of text watermarks and it guarantees a high payload capacity. It is noteworthy the maximum lengths of text watermarks used in the method for 512×512 and 1024×1024 images are 47,784 and 164,620 bits, respectively. Although the size of the embedded watermark increases with the size of the ROI area, the image transparency remains almost constant and also the watermark is extracted with a bit error rate of zero. By doing various analyses, the experimental results represent superior imperceptibility by an average PSNR value of 75 dB. This method provides high imperceptibility and robustness against various attacks compared with state-of-the-art algorithms.

30 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A different hybrid algorithm that combines Cellular Automata with the African Buffalo Optimization (ABO), CAABO, to improve the QoS of MANETs is proposed, which optimizes the path selection in the ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing protocol.
Abstract: A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) exhibits a dynamic topology with flexible infrastructure. The MANET nodes may serve as both host and router functionalities. The routing feature of the MANET is a stand-alone multi-hop mobile network that can be utilized in many real-time applications. Therefore, identifying paths that ensure high Quality of Service (QoS), such as their topology and applications is a vital issue in MANET. A QoS-aware protocol in MANETs aims to find more efficient paths between the source and destination nodes of the network and, hence, the requirements of the QoS. This paper proposes a different hybrid algorithm that combines Cellular Automata (CA) with the African Buffalo Optimization (ABO), CAABO, to improve the QoS of MANETs. The CAABO optimizes the path selection in the ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing protocol. The test results show that with the aid of the CAABO, the AODV manifests energy and delay-aware routing protocol.

28 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
19 Nov 2018
TL;DR: A Multi-Agent System (MAS) for the establishment of efficient routes from the source to destination nodes in AODV, namely MAAODV protocol is proposed, which utilizes the parameters of energy consumption, number of hops and delay to optimize the selection of the routes.
Abstract: The field of mobile communication has experienced great changes and growth since the advancement of computing devices and wireless technology. The need for mobile networks with minimal infrastructure that can be easily used, has been aroused by the mobility advancement of people around the world. Such kind of networks is known as Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs). The Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) is a popular routing protocol in the MANETs. Nevertheless, one issue of the AODV is the selection of routes based on minimum delay alone. Even though the delay is a significant parameter that has a direct effect on the performance of the network, other parameters such as energy consumption are necessary to establish efficiency routes. Therefore, this paper proposes employing a Multi-Agent System (MAS) for the establishment of efficient routes from the source to destination nodes in AODV, namely MAAODV protocol. The agents utilize the parameters of energy consumption, number of hops and delay to optimize the selection of the routes. The paper presents a simulation scenario to show the applicability of the proposed MAAODV routing protocol.

24 citations

01 Jan 2009
TL;DR: It is shown how requirements of low cost and low energy consumption can influence the choice of switching technologies as well as the overall network architecture.
Abstract: We review technologies and architectures for WDM optical IP networks from the viewpoint of capital expenditure and network energy consumption. We show how requirements of low cost and low energy consumption can influence the choice of switching technologies as well as the overall network architecture.

14 citations