Agnieszka M. Ruppert
Bio: Agnieszka M. Ruppert is an academic researcher from Lodz University of Technology. The author has contributed to research in topics: Catalysis & Cellulose. The author has an hindex of 20, co-authored 53 publications receiving 2277 citations. Previous affiliations of Agnieszka M. Ruppert include RWTH Aachen University & Utrecht University.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Past and present developments in hydrogenolysis reactions are highlighted, with special emphasis on the direct utilization of cellulosic feedstocks, to bridge currently available technologies and future biomass-based refinery concepts.
Abstract: In view of the diminishing oil resources and the ongoing climate change, the use of efficient and environmentally benign technologies for the utilization of renewable resources has become indispensible. Therein, hydrogenolysis reactions offer a promising possibility for future biorefinery concepts. These reactions result in the cleavage of C-C and C-O bonds by hydrogen and allow direct access to valuable platform chemicals already integrated in today's value chains. Thus, hydrogenolysis bears the potential to bridge currently available technologies and future biomass-based refinery concepts. This Review highlights past and present developments in this field, with special emphasis on the direct utilization of cellulosic feedstocks.
TL;DR: In this paper, a catalytic system capable of reaching high performance in the hydrogenolysis of cellulose at low reaction temperature and short reaction times has been developed, where supported noble metal catalysts based on Pt, Pd and Ru have been combined with dilute mineral acids.
Abstract: A catalytic system capable of reaching high performance in the hydrogenolysis of cellulose at low reaction temperature and short reaction times has been developed. Therefore, supported noble metal catalysts based on Pt, Pd and Ru have been combined with dilute mineral acids. A broad variable set in terms of type of noble metal, type of acid, acid concentration and reaction time could be evaluated based on chemical interpretation and supported by a Design of Experiment (DoE) approach. The variables significantly influenced conversion of cellulose, product range and selectivity towards sugar alcohol formation. Thus, at 160 °C, above 60% yield in sugars and sugar alcohols with 84% selectivity at a cellulose conversion of 72% could be reached. Besides, glycerol, propylene glycol, ethylene glycol and methanol were formed as additional valuable by-products leading to an overall carbon utilization above 89%. Furthermore, the concept was successfully transferred to real feedstocks in the form of spruce reaching close to 60% conversion in only one hour reaction time.
TL;DR: Heteropoly acids together with supported ruthenium catalysts show not only high activity but also remarkable selectivity to sugar alcohols reaching up to 81% yield of C(4) to C(6) sugar Alcohols in only 7 h at 160 °C.
Abstract: Cellulose and even spruce can be converted efficiently into valuable platform chemicals via combined hydrolysis and hydrogenation in the aqueous phase. Thereby, heteropoly acids together with supported ruthenium catalysts show not only high activity but also remarkable selectivity to sugar alcohols reaching up to 81% yield of C4 to C6sugar alcohols in only 7 h at 160 °C.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that water is responsible for the enhanced reactivity of Ru under aqueous phase conditions in the hydrogenation of ketones such as the conversion of levulinic acid into gamma-valerolactone.
Abstract: While Ru is a poor hydrogenation catalyst compared to Pt or Pd in the gas phase, it is efficient under aqueous phase conditions in the hydrogenation of ketones such as the conversion of levulinic acid into gamma-valerolactone. Combining DFT calculations and experiments, we demonstrate that water is responsible for the enhanced reactivity of Ru under those conditions.
TL;DR: A plausible alternative reaction scheme for glycerol etherification is presented, which considers the facilitation of the hydroxyl leaving process and the stability of the catalytic solids under study was investigated and it was found that colloidal CaO particles can be spontaneously generated during reaction.
Abstract: Glycerol is an attractive renewable building block for the synthesis of di- and triglycerols, which have numerous applications in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, the selective etherification of glycerol to di- and triglycerol was studied in the presence of alkaline earth metal oxides and the data are compared with those obtained with Na2CO3 as a homogeneous catalyst. It was found that glycerol conversion increased with increasing catalyst basicity; that is, the conversion increases in the order: MgO 90 % at 60 % conversion) are obtained over CaO, SrO, and BaO. For these catalysts no substantial acrolein formation was observed. Furthermore, at the start of the reaction mainly linear diglycerol was produced, whereas at higher conversion degrees branched diglycerol started to form. In another series of experiments different types of CaO materials were prepared. It was found that these CaO-based materials not only differed in their surface area and number of basic sites, but also in their Lewis acid strength. Within this series the CaO material possessing the strongest Lewis acid sites had the highest catalytic activity, comparable to that of BaO, pointing towards the important role of Lewis acidity for this etherification reaction. Based on these observations a plausible alternative reaction scheme for glycerol etherification is presented, which considers the facilitation of the hydroxyl leaving process. Finally, the stability of the catalytic solids under study was investigated and it was found that colloidal CaO particles of about 50-100 nm can be spontaneously generated during reaction. Catalytic testing of these CaO colloids, after isolation from the reaction medium, revealed a very high etherification activity. Understanding the nature of these Ca-based colloids opens new opportunities for investigating supported colloidal particle catalysts to take advantage of both their hetero- and homogeneous nature.
TL;DR: This critical review provides a survey illustrated by recent references of different strategies to achieve a sustainable conversion of biomass to bioproducts to examine critically the green character of conversion processes.
Abstract: This critical review provides a survey illustrated by recent references of different strategies to achieve a sustainable conversion of biomass to bioproducts. Because of the huge number of chemical products that can be potentially manufactured, a selection of starting materials and targeted chemicals has been done. Also, thermochemical conversion processes such as biomass pyrolysis or gasification as well as the synthesis of biofuels were not considered. The synthesis of chemicals by conversion of platform molecules obtained by depolymerisation and fermentation of biopolymers is presently the most widely envisioned approach. Successful catalytic conversion of these building blocks into intermediates, specialties and fine chemicals will be examined. However, the platform molecule value chain is in competition with well-optimised, cost-effective synthesis routes from fossil resources to produce chemicals that have already a market. The literature covering alternative value chains whereby biopolymers are converted in one or few steps to functional materials will be analysed. This approach which does not require the use of isolated, pure chemicals is well adapted to produce high tonnage products, such as paper additives, paints, resins, foams, surfactants, lubricants, and plasticisers. Another objective of the review was to examine critically the green character of conversion processes because using renewables as raw materials does not exempt from abiding by green chemistry principles (368 references).
TL;DR: This paper presents a new state-of-the-art implementation of the iChEM (Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials) Key Laborotary of Catalysis, which automates the very labor-intensive and therefore expensive and therefore time-heavy and expensive process ofalysis.
Abstract: and Fuels Changzhi Li,† Xiaochen Zhao,† Aiqin Wang,† George W. Huber,†,‡ and Tao Zhang*,† †State Key Laborotary of Catalysis, iChEM (Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials), Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, China ‡Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of WisconsinMadison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, United States
TL;DR: This critical review provides insights into the state-of-the-art accomplishments in the chemocatalytic technologies to generate fuels and value-added chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass, with an emphasis on its major component, cellulose.
Abstract: Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant and bio-renewable resource with great potential for sustainable production of chemicals and fuels. This critical review provides insights into the state-of the-art accomplishments in the chemocatalytic technologies to generate fuels and value-added chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass, with an emphasis on its major component, cellulose. Catalytic hydrolysis, solvolysis, liquefaction, pyrolysis, gasification, hydrogenolysis and hydrogenation are the major processes presently studied. Regarding catalytic hydrolysis, the acid catalysts cover inorganic or organic acids and various solid acids such as sulfonated carbon, zeolites, heteropolyacids and oxides. Liquefaction and fast pyrolysis of cellulose are primarily conducted over catalysts with proper acidity/basicity. Gasification is typically conducted over supported noble metal catalysts. Reaction conditions, solvents and catalysts are the prime factors that affect the yield and composition of the target products. Most of processes yield a complex mixture, leading to problematic upgrading and separation. An emerging technique is to integrate hydrolysis, liquefaction or pyrolysis with hydrogenation over multifunctional solid catalysts to convert lignocellulosic biomass to value-added fine chemicals and bio-hydrocarbon fuels. And the promising catalysts might be supported transition metal catalysts and zeolite-related materials. There still exist technological barriers that need to be overcome (229 references).
TL;DR: A review of recent results published in the literature for biomass upgrading reactions using bimetallic catalysts offers the possibility of enabling lignocellulosic processing to become a larger part of the biofuels and renewable chemical industry.
Abstract: Research interest in biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals has increased significantly in the last decade as the necessity for a renewable source of carbon has become more evident. Accordingly, many different reactions and processes to convert biomass into high-value products and fuels have been proposed in the literature. Special attention has been given to the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass, which does not compete with food sources and is widely available as a low cost feedstock. In this review, we start with a brief introduction on lignocellulose and the different chemical structures of its components: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. These three components allow for the production of different chemicals after fractionation. After a brief overview of the main reactions involved in biomass conversion, we focus on those where bimetallic catalysts are playing an important role. Although the reactions are similar for cellulose and hemicellulose, which contain C6 and C5 sugars, respectively, different products are obtained, and therefore, they have been reviewed separately. The third major fraction of lignocellulose that we address is lignin, which has significant challenges to overcome, as its structure makes catalytic processing more challenging. Bimetallic catalysts offer the possibility of enabling lignocellulosic processing to become a larger part of the biofuels and renewable chemical industry. This review summarizes recent results published in the literature for biomass upgrading reactions using bimetallic catalysts.