Agnieta B. Pretorius
Bio: Agnieta B. Pretorius is an academic researcher from Tshwane University of Technology. The author has contributed to research in topics: Intellectual capital & Computer science. The author has an hindex of 3, co-authored 5 publications receiving 28 citations.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors show that the coupling approach of Orton and Weick (1990) does not apply to those organizations which allow innovating activities being loosely coupled or decoupled from the reigning standard script.
Abstract: The paper explores process management standards in software development organisations. It centres on the question how organisations manage the compliance with process standards as well as the need for ongoing technical innovation at the same time. It refers to former studies where it was concluded that process management standards tend to crowd out technical innovations in organisations. By reconsidering the coupling approach of Orton and Weick (1990) we show based on four case studies that it does not apply to those organisations which allow innovating activities being loosely coupled or decoupled from the reigning standard script. These organisations sustain their chances for incremental and fundamental technical innovations. Dealing with loosely coupled or decoupled innovating activities implies a dialectical standard management. It means that potentially contradictory and conflict-ridden activities like standardised practices and innovating activities are manageable by specific institutional, temporarily limited and formal/informal solutions. Furthermore, we scrutinise in this paper the decoupling discussion of some parts of the standard management literature. Standard decoupling is often seen as an unfortunate, but necessary solution to cope with external pressure for internal standardisation. In contrast to this, we develop an understanding where standard decoupling is not defined as a set of activities without affecting the 'technical core' of an organisation. (Brunsson and Jacobsson, 2000b; Meyer and Rowan, 1967). Rather, decoupling is seen as a temporary and locally limited situation of an innovating subsystem within an organisation where it is allowed to detach from reigning standardised practices and to test and develop innovative ideas under less formalised conditions.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors identify factors that negatively influence knowledge sharing in software development in the developing country context, namely, job security, motivation, time constraints, physiological factors, communication, resistance to change and rewards.
Abstract: Background: ‘Knowledge is power’ and software developing organisations are dependent on knowledge to achieve and maintain a competitive advantage. Subsequently, knowledge sharing is a key factor for modern software developing organisations to succeed in today’s competitive environment. For software developing organisations to reach their goals and objectives, knowledge sharing – and in particular the sharing of useful knowledge – needs to be targeted. To promote knowledge sharing, factors influencing knowledge sharing need to be identified and understood. Objective: This study seeks to identify factors that negatively influence knowledge sharing in software development in the developing country context. Method: Expert sampling as a subcategory of purposive sampling was employed to extract information, views and opinions from experts in the field of information and communication technology, more specifically from those who are involved in software development projects. Four Johannesburg-based software developing organisations listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE), South Africa, participated in this research study. Quantitative data were collected using an online questionnaire with closed-ended questions. Results: Findings of this research reveal that job security, motivation, time constraints, physiological factors, communication, resistance to change and rewards are core factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing in software developing organisations. Conclusions: Improved understanding of factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing is expected to assist software developing organisations in closing the gap for software development projects failing to meet the triple constraint of time, cost and scope.
••01 Nov 2019
TL;DR: The experimental study shows that the ROC curve (AUC) of PCA-ANN with 32 principal components convincingly outperformed other models in terms the training/testing ratio of 10 folds cross-validation for the training and testing ratio.
Abstract: Financial distress prediction is vital in financial decision-making for industry practitioners, financial system users and policymakers. Most of the research work on bankruptcy prediction and credit scoring compare the prediction accuracy of a model on a specific dataset to other models applied on a different dataset. Those research work did not consider factors that affect the datasets. These factors include feature selection, the total number of instances, number of variables employed, training/testing ratio and they affect the accuracy of the model. Therefore, knowing these factors help in analyzing the models carefully before comparing the model's prediction accuracy. We proposed a hybrid model which combine principal component analysis (PCA) with neural network analysis ANN for bankruptcy prediction. The experimental set-up is conducted using a Polish companies bankruptcy dataset which is publicly online on the UCI database. The dataset was pass through different training and testing ratio. The experimental study shows that PCA-ANN with 32 principal components outperforms other models using cross-validation for the training and testing ratio. The aim is to confirm the model with the highest accuracy, and the best area under the ROC curve (AUC) base on the training/testing ratio. Hence, in this research work, we declared the best model based on the said dataset. We observed that the ROC curve (AUC) of PCA-ANN with 32 principal components convincingly outperformed other models in terms the training/testing ratio of 10 folds cross-validation.
01 Jan 2011
TL;DR: Perceptions of consultants, practitioners and researchers on factors influencing appropriateness of methods for assessment of IC are tested and it is concluded that the majority of respondents consider goals and objectives of organisation, purpose of Assessment, level of assessment, and audience as very important factors in selecting an appropriate method for Assessment of IC (given any particular context).
Abstract: Despite an overwhelming body of literature on methods, models, systems and frameworks for assessment of IC, and increased awareness of the need for such assessment, relatively few organisations are actively and comprehensively assessing their IC. There is a multitude of proposed methods with little knowledge on the grounds for making the choice for selecting the optimal one among them. To assist with such decision making, this research investigates the factors influencing appropriateness of methods for assessment of intellectual capital. A survey - making use of a self-administered questionnaire - was performed to test perceptions of consultants, practitioners and researchers on factors influencing appropriateness of methods for assessment of IC. Convenience sampling - coupled with snowball sampling to locate further suitable candidates - was employed. It is concluded that the majority of respondents consider goals and objectives of organisation, purpose of assessment, level of assessment, and audience as very important factors in selecting an appropriate method for assessment of IC (given any particular context). Level of resources, business sector, industry and line of business and size of organisation are considered at least moderately important. Keywords Assessment of intellectual capital, Intangible assets, Methods of assessment, Complexity of choice.
01 Jan 2002
TL;DR: This chapter discusses the construction of Inquiry, the science of inquiry, and the role of data in the design of research.
Abstract: Part I: AN INTRODUCTION TO INQUIRY. 1. Human Inquiry and Science. 2. Paradigms, Theory, and Research. 3. The Ethics and Politics of Social Research. Part II: THE STRUCTURING OF INQUIRY: QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE. 4. Research Design. 5. Conceptualization, Operationalization, and Measurement. 6. Indexes, Scales, and Typologies. 7. The Logic of Sampling. Part III: MODES OF OBSERVATION: QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE. 8. Experiments. 9. Survey Research. 10. Qualitative Field Research. 11. Unobtrusive Research. 12. Evaluation Research. Part IV: ANALYSIS OF DATA:QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE . 13. Qualitative Data Analysis. 14. Quantitative Data Analysis. 15. Reading and Writing Social Research. Appendix A. Using the Library. Appendix B. Random Numbers. Appendix C. Distribution of Chi Square. Appendix D. Normal Curve Areas. Appendix E. Estimated Sampling Error.
TL;DR: In this paper, a qualitative analysis of the interviews revealed highly contrasting attitudes that were frequently critical of the ISO 9000 system, which was often given only superficial support, while the "quality enthusiasts" discourse often reflected managers' "rhetoric of success" described by Zbaracki (1998) about the implementation of total quality programs.
Abstract: Adopted by an increasing number of organizations around the world, the ISO 9000 standards have become a growing concern for more and more managers who are often compelled to adopt this system without really knowing its requirements and implications for employees. Though the effects of this standard on quality management and on performance improvement have been widely debated, there is little knowledge of how the managers and employees who are asked to implement and maintain it perceive the ISO 9000 standards or resist its use. This study will thus attempt to analyze this perception and resistance with regard to both the standard and the certification process. So as to avoid the traditional and idealised view of this standard, whose commercial stakes often give rise to uncritical statements, almost 50 interviews were conducted outside of the workplace. The results of these interviews revealed highly contrasting attitudes that were frequently critical of the ISO 9000 system, which was often given only superficial support. A qualitative analysis of the data allowed us to identify three types of respondents. They were grouped according to their opinions and attitudes about the implementation of this standard. The three groups were ceremonial integrators, quality enthusiasts and dissidents. Although the "quality enthusiasts" discourse often reflects managers' "rhetoric of success" described by Zbaracki (1998) about the implementation of total quality programs, this rhetoric is not shared by the other respondent categories. Hence, this research project contributes to a better understanding of how institutional pressures, which create "isomorphic" organizations by leading them to adopt identical management models, are reinterpreted, renegotiated, and modified within organizations. The proposed typology casts doubt on the mechanistic, consensual, and monolithic view of the ISO 9000 system that underlies most of the work on this theme. In particular, this study demonstrates the relevance of adopting both the institutionalist and critical approaches in efforts to explain the respondents' opinions. In so doing, the personnel's support for the ISO 9000 system and the certification process can then be analyzed from different angles. This certification process would ultimately appear to be a rite of passage that gives rise to various strategies that depend on the respondents' category and their support for the standard.
01 Jan 2011
01 Feb 2017
TL;DR: In this article, the authors reviewed the terminological distinctions used for control in twenty-five empirical studies on management control in the field of data collection and analysis. But they did not consider interactive and diagnostic control.
Abstract: The article reviews the terminological distinctions (e.g. action and result control, interactive and diagnostic control) used for control in twenty-five empirical studies on management control in t ...
TL;DR: Dans une grande ville, l'alimentation en eau potable est une necessite absolue et la ville de New York s'est dotee de son premier systeme de distribution hydrique.
Abstract: Dans une grande ville, l'alimentation en eau potable est une necessite absolue. En 1774, soit deux siecles apres sa fondation, la ville de New York s'est dotee de son premier systeme de distribution hydrique