Ahmad Fauzi Ismail
Other affiliations: University of Ottawa, Yeungnam University, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology ...read more
Bio: Ahmad Fauzi Ismail is an academic researcher from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. The author has contributed to research in topics: Membrane & Gas separation. The author has an hindex of 93, co-authored 1357 publications receiving 40853 citations. Previous affiliations of Ahmad Fauzi Ismail include University of Ottawa & Yeungnam University.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, the PAN fiber is first stretched and simultaneously oxidized in a temperature range of 200-300°C and then carbonized at about 1000°C in inert atmosphere which is usually nitrogen.
Abstract: Developing carbon fiber from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based fiber is generally subjected to three processes namely stabilization, carbonization, and graphitization under controlled conditions. The PAN fiber is first stretched and simultaneously oxidized in a temperature range of 200–300 °C. This treatment converts thermoplastic PAN to a non-plastic cyclic or a ladder compound. After oxidation, the fibers are carbonized at about 1000 °C in inert atmosphere which is usually nitrogen. Then, in order to improve the ordering and orientation of the crystallites in the direction of the fiber axis, the fiber must be heated at about 1500–3000 °C until the polymer contains 92–100%. High temperature process generally leads to higher modulus fibers which expel impurities in the chain as volatile by-products. During heating treatment, the fiber shrinks in diameter, builds the structure into a large structure and upgrades the strength by removing the initial nitrogen content of PAN precursor and the timing of nitrogen. With better-controlled condition, the strength of the fiber can achieve up to 400 GPa after this pyrolysis process.
TL;DR: In this paper, the use of activated carbon, oxidation, activated sludge, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes, and their efficiencies in removal of these pollutants, are reviewed.
Abstract: The occurrence of emerging or newly identified contaminants in our water resources is of continued concern for the health and safety of consuming public. The existing conventional water treatment plants were not designed for these unidentified contaminants. The endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) comprise pharmaceuticals, personal care products, surfactants, various industrial additives and numerous chemicals purported to be endocrine disrupter. These have become a threat to our water supply network. The current wastewater treatment system is not effective in elimination of these different classes of emerging contaminants as these have not been monitored due to the absence of stringent regulation specific to these contaminants. These undesirable compounds are being released, knowingly or unknowingly, into the aquatic environment that affect the whole living organism. The paper discusses adverse effects of these emerging contaminants to water consumers and discusses the potential removal processes. The use of activated carbon, oxidation, activated sludge, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes, and their efficiencies in removal of these pollutants, are reviewed. In particular, the nanofiltration removal mechanism is emphasized because of its utmost importance in eliminating micropollutants.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors highlight the recent development of advanced membrane technology such as surface modification, addition of inorganic particles in polymer membrane and the development of ceramic membranes and discuss the effect of operating parameters on the membrane performance.
Abstract: Membrane separation processes have become an emerging technology for the treatment of oily wastewater due to high oil removal efficiency and relatively facile operational process. This review will highlight the recent development of advanced membrane technology such as surface modification, addition of inorganic particles in polymer membrane and the development of ceramic membranes. Additionally, the effect of operating parameters on the membrane performance is discussed in detail. Future outlooks in oil–water membrane separation are also discussed to further broaden the research and development related to this technology.
TL;DR: The major breakthrough in the preparation of thin film composite (TFC) membrane via interfacial polymerization technique has resulted in tremendous achievements in producing a membrane with a right combination of flux and salt rejection, and generating huge interest in industrial sectors as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: The major breakthrough in the preparation of thin film composite (TFC) membrane via interfacial polymerization technique has resulted in tremendous achievements in producing a membrane with a right combination of flux and salt rejection, and generating huge interest in industrial sectors. Over the past decade, there have been intensive and continuous efforts in the development of TFC membrane, both from the industry and academia with the interests to further improve the membrane productivity and selectivity as well as its tolerance against chlorine, solvent, fouling, etc. On basis of a brief introduction of the development history of TFC membranes, this paper reviews the recent research progress of the TFC membrane science and technology, particularly in the fields of water-related separation processes. Reviewing the research progress is imperative and necessary in order to provide an insight for the future development and perhaps open a door to extend the applications to other more challenging areas.
TL;DR: In this paper, the performance studies of mixed matrix membrane (MMM) for gas separation were critically reviewed, and the materials selection and the preparation techniques of MMM were also discussed.
Abstract: Development of polymeric gas separation membranes is one of the fastest growing branches of membrane technology. However, polymeric materials are somewhat deficient in meeting the requirements of current membrane technology. Mixed matrix membrane (MMM), comprising rigid permeable or impermeable particles, such as zeolites, carbon molecular sieves, silica and carbon nanotubes, dispersed in a continuous polymeric matrix presents an interesting approach for improving the separation properties of polymeric membranes. In this approach, using properties of both the organic and inorganic phase, a membrane with good permeability, selectivity, mechanical strength, and thermal, chemical stability and processibility can be prepared. In this paper the performance studies of MMM for gas separation were critically reviewed. In addition, the materials selection and the preparation techniques of MMM were also discussed. Methodology in improving the interface defects in the MMM and its effect on the separation performance have also been reviewed. The models for predicting the performance of MMM for gas separation have been discussed in details and the future direction of research and development to fully exploit the potential usage of MMM was shown.
TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …
01 Jan 2015
10 Mar 1970
01 Mar 2007
TL;DR: An initiative to develop uniform standards for defining and classifying AKI and to establish a forum for multidisciplinary interaction to improve care for patients with or at risk for AKI is described.
Abstract: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complex disorder for which currently there is no accepted definition. Having a uniform standard for diagnosing and classifying AKI would enhance our ability to manage these patients. Future clinical and translational research in AKI will require collaborative networks of investigators drawn from various disciplines, dissemination of information via multidisciplinary joint conferences and publications, and improved translation of knowledge from pre-clinical research. We describe an initiative to develop uniform standards for defining and classifying AKI and to establish a forum for multidisciplinary interaction to improve care for patients with or at risk for AKI. Members representing key societies in critical care and nephrology along with additional experts in adult and pediatric AKI participated in a two day conference in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in September 2005 and were assigned to one of three workgroups. Each group's discussions formed the basis for draft recommendations that were later refined and improved during discussion with the larger group. Dissenting opinions were also noted. The final draft recommendations were circulated to all participants and subsequently agreed upon as the consensus recommendations for this report. Participating societies endorsed the recommendations and agreed to help disseminate the results. The term AKI is proposed to represent the entire spectrum of acute renal failure. Diagnostic criteria for AKI are proposed based on acute alterations in serum creatinine or urine output. A staging system for AKI which reflects quantitative changes in serum creatinine and urine output has been developed. We describe the formation of a multidisciplinary collaborative network focused on AKI. We have proposed uniform standards for diagnosing and classifying AKI which will need to be validated in future studies. The Acute Kidney Injury Network offers a mechanism for proceeding with efforts to improve patient outcomes.