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Ahmed Hussein

Other affiliations: Indiana University, Purdue University, TRIUMF  ...read more
Bio: Ahmed Hussein is an academic researcher from Cape Peninsula University of Technology. The author has contributed to research in topics: Nusselt number & Nanofluid. The author has an hindex of 53, co-authored 450 publications receiving 11426 citations. Previous affiliations of Ahmed Hussein include Indiana University & Purdue University.


Papers
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TL;DR: This article surveys imitation learning methods and presents design options in different steps of the learning process, and extensively discusses combining imitation learning approaches using different sources and methods, as well as incorporating other motion learning methods to enhance imitation.
Abstract: Imitation learning techniques aim to mimic human behavior in a given task. An agent (a learning machine) is trained to perform a task from demonstrations by learning a mapping between observations and actions. The idea of teaching by imitation has been around for many years; however, the field is gaining attention recently due to advances in computing and sensing as well as rising demand for intelligent applications. The paradigm of learning by imitation is gaining popularity because it facilitates teaching complex tasks with minimal expert knowledge of the tasks. Generic imitation learning methods could potentially reduce the problem of teaching a task to that of providing demonstrations, without the need for explicit programming or designing reward functions specific to the task. Modern sensors are able to collect and transmit high volumes of data rapidly, and processors with high computational power allow fast processing that maps the sensory data to actions in a timely manner. This opens the door for many potential AI applications that require real-time perception and reaction such as humanoid robots, self-driving vehicles, human computer interaction, and computer games, to name a few. However, specialized algorithms are needed to effectively and robustly learn models as learning by imitation poses its own set of challenges. In this article, we survey imitation learning methods and present design options in different steps of the learning process. We introduce a background and motivation for the field as well as highlight challenges specific to the imitation problem. Methods for designing and evaluating imitation learning tasks are categorized and reviewed. Special attention is given to learning methods in robotics and games as these domains are the most popular in the literature and provide a wide array of problems and methodologies. We extensively discuss combining imitation learning approaches using different sources and methods, as well as incorporating other motion learning methods to enhance imitation. We also discuss the potential impact on industry, present major applications, and highlight current and future research directions.

535 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the effect of unit cell size on the manufacturability, density and compression properties of the manufactured cellular lattice structures were investigated, and it was shown that the lattice structure made by selective laser melting has a good geometric agreement with the original computer-aided design (CAD) models, but many partially melted metal particles are bonded to strut surfaces.
Abstract: Metallic additive manufacturing techniques, in particular the selective laser melting (SLM) process, are capable of fabricating strong, lightweight and complex metallic lattice structures. However, they still face certain process limitations such as geometrical constraints and in some cases the need for support structures. This study evaluates the manufacturability and performance of SLM produced periodic cellular lattice structures, which are designed by repeating a unit cell type called gyroid consisting of circular struts and a spherical core. The effect of unit cell size on the manufacturability, density and compression properties of the manufactured cellular lattice structures were investigated. Micro-computer tomography (CT) scan results reveal that the gyroid cellular lattice structures with various unit cell sizes ranging from 2 to 8 mm can be manufactured free of defects by the SLM process without the need of additional support structures. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) micrographs show that the lattice structures made by SLM have a good geometric agreement with the original computer-aided design (CAD) models, but many partially melted metal particles are bonded to strut surfaces. The struts within the gyroid cellular lattice structures with smaller unit cell sizes have higher densities due to their shorter scan vector lengths in the SLM process. The yield strength and Young's modulus of the Gyroid cellular lattice structures increase with the decrease in the unit cell size due to the denser struts of the lattice structures with smaller unit cell sizes.

533 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a nonlinear transient model based on sequentially coupled thermo-mechanical field analysis code was developed in ANSYS parametric design language (APDL) to investigate the temperature and stress fields in single 316L stainless steel layers built on the powder bed without support in SLM.

517 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a unique cell type called gyroid is designed to construct periodic lattice structures and utilize its curved cell surface as a self-supported feature which avoids the building of support structures and reduces material waste and production time.

457 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a lattice structure with very low volume fraction was used to anchor the overhang geometry to the base plate and prevent distortion/curling resulting from thermal stresses.

358 citations


Cited by
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Journal Article
TL;DR: This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for "experimenters") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment.
Abstract: THE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTS. By Oscar Kempthorne. New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1952. 631 pp. $8.50. This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for \"experimenters\") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment. It is necessary to have some facility with algebraic notation and manipulation to be able to use the volume intelligently. The problems are presented from the theoretical point of view, without such practical examples as would be helpful for those not acquainted with mathematics. The mathematical justification for the techniques is given. As a somewhat advanced treatment of the design and analysis of experiments, this volume will be interesting and helpful for many who approach statistics theoretically as well as practically. With emphasis on the \"why,\" and with description given broadly, the author relates the subject matter to the general theory of statistics and to the general problem of experimental inference. MARGARET J. ROBERTSON

13,333 citations

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TL;DR: This review covers the literature published in 2014 for marine natural products, with 1116 citations referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms.

4,649 citations

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TL;DR: A review of the emerging research on additive manufacturing of metallic materials is provided in this article, which provides a comprehensive overview of the physical processes and the underlying science of metallurgical structure and properties of the deposited parts.

4,192 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Based on the evidence available for each item of the multimodal perioperative care pathway, the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) Society, International Association for Surgical Metabolism and Nutrition (IASMEN) and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolicism (ESPEN) present a comprehensive evidence-based consensus review of peri operative care for colonic surgery.
Abstract: This is the fourth updated Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS®) Society guideline presenting a consensus for optimal perioperative care in colorectal surgery and providing graded recommendations for each ERAS item within the ERAS® protocol. A wide database search on English literature publications was performed. Studies on each item within the protocol were selected with particular attention paid to meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials and large prospective cohorts and examined, reviewed and graded according to Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. All recommendations on ERAS® protocol items are based on best available evidence; good-quality trials; meta-analyses of good-quality trials; or large cohort studies. The level of evidence for the use of each item is presented accordingly. The evidence base and recommendation for items within the multimodal perioperative care pathway are presented by the ERAS® Society in this comprehensive consensus review.

1,918 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a review of additive manufacturing (AM) techniques for producing metal parts are explored, with a focus on the science of metal AM: processing defects, heat transfer, solidification, solid-state precipitation, mechanical properties and post-processing metallurgy.
Abstract: Additive manufacturing (AM), widely known as 3D printing, is a method of manufacturing that forms parts from powder, wire or sheets in a process that proceeds layer by layer. Many techniques (using many different names) have been developed to accomplish this via melting or solid-state joining. In this review, these techniques for producing metal parts are explored, with a focus on the science of metal AM: processing defects, heat transfer, solidification, solid-state precipitation, mechanical properties and post-processing metallurgy. The various metal AM techniques are compared, with analysis of the strengths and limitations of each. Only a few alloys have been developed for commercial production, but recent efforts are presented as a path for the ongoing development of new materials for AM processes.

1,713 citations