Other affiliations: Indian Institute of Technology Bombay
Bio: Akanksha Choudhary is an academic researcher from Indian Institute of Technology, Jodhpur. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Social mobility & Rural area. The author has an hindex of 4, co-authored 7 publication(s) receiving 36 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Akanksha Choudhary include Indian Institute of Technology Bombay.
Abstract: Taking data from the ‘India Youth Survey: Situation and Needs’ the paper examines intergenerational educational mobility for young females (vis-a-vis their mothers) in India. The paper uses transition/mobility matrices and mobility measures widely used in the literature on intergenerational mobility for the examination. The overall intergenerational educational mobility among the young females in India is about 0.69 (the upper limit being 1). The upwards component of the overall intergenerational educational mobility is 0.55 (that is, nearly four-fifth of the overall). Also, the intergenerational educational mobility is slightly higher in the ‘Scheduled Castes and Tribes (SC/ST)’ compared to the ‘Other Backward Castes (OBC)’ as well as ‘Others’ castes. But the upward mobility is substantially higher in the ‘Others’ caste group compared to SC/STs. The upward mobility among the OBCs is higher than that of SC/STs but lower than that of the ‘Others’ category. Also, the overall mobility as well as upward mobility is higher in urban areas. Moreover, there are large inter-state variations with the economically and demographically poorer states having substantially lower overall as well as upward mobility than the economically and demographically advanced states.
04 Oct 2016
Abstract: A few studies have related daughters’ education to their fathers in India but there is little to no evidence when it comes to intergenerational relation between daughters and mothers’ education. Using India Human Development Survey 2011-12, we investigate intergenerational educational mobility for women (15-49 years) (vis-a-vis their mothers). We have used mobility matrices/measures for the estimation. Findings indicate that intergenerational educational mobility at the all-India level is about 0.69, that is, 69% of the women acquire a level of education different from their mothers. Of the overall mobility, about 80% is contributed by upwards mobility whereas the rest is downwards. Mobility is greater in urban areas and is highest among the socially advantaged “Others” (or upper) caste group. Also, the upwards component is substantially lower for socially disadvantaged groups compared to Others. Further, there are large inter-regional variations, with situation being worst in the central and eastern regions which comprise of the underdeveloped states of India. Moreover, mobility (overall and upwards) increases consistently as one move up the income distribution. Furthermore, income is not able to neutralize the caste based gaps in overall mobility as overall mobility among the Others of the poorest income group is more than the overall mobility among Scheduled Castes/Tribes of the richest income group.
Abstract: Inequality of opportunity (IOp) in any society is defined as that part of overall inequality which arises from factors beyond the control of an individual (circumstances) such as parental education, caste, gender, religion etc. and is thus considered unfair and is against the meritocratic values of a society. Hence, it needs to be controlled and compensated. We estimate the IOp in economic outcomes among Indian women by using the nationally representative India Human Development Survey 2011–2012. We include parental education, caste, religion and region of birth as circumstances. The overall IOp in income ranges from 18–25% and 16–21% (of total income inequality) in urban and rural areas, respectively. The corresponding figures for consumption expenditure are 16–22% and 20–23% in urban and rural areas, respectively. We also estimate the partial contributions of the circumstances to the overall IOp. We find that the parental education is the most significant contributor to IOp in urban areas, whereas, region of birth is the most significant contributor to IOp in rural areas. Fortunately, findings imply that socially and culturally imbedded factors like caste and religion which are more persistent do contribute to the IOp, but, the largest contribution is due to factors like parental education and region which can be relatively easily tackled and addressed with policy interventions.
TL;DR: It is found that the women experiencing upward intergenerational educational mobility have significantly higher chances of experiencing good overall health compared to the women who are having same or lesser level of education as that of their mothers.
Abstract: This study aims to analyse the relationship between intergenerational educational mobility and the overall health of the Indian women. It uses a nationally representative survey, India Human Development Survey (IHDS) 2011-12, and logistic regressions to study this relationship. The sample comprises of women aged 45 years and older. We find that the women experiencing upward intergenerational educational mobility (vis-a-vis their mothers) have significantly higher chances of experiencing good overall health compared to the women who are having same or lesser level of education as that of their mothers. Besides, women suffering from short term or major morbidity have remarkably lower chances of having overall good health. Also, women from rural India have significantly lesser chances of having overall good health as compared to that of urban areas. Further, Muslim women have lesser chances of having overall good health as that of women from other religious categories. Moreover, there is a significant variation in the overall health of women as we move from the eastern region to the western region of India.
Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the intergenerational occupational mobility for young women (vis-a-vis their mothers) in India and six of its states from its diverse geographic regions which contribute 39 percent of the Indian population. Design/methodology/approach The study uses transition/mobility matrices and multiple mobility measures for examination of intergenerational occupational mobility among young females in India by using the data from the “India Youth Survey: Situation and Needs” from the year 2006 to 2007. Findings The study finds that intergenerational occupational mobility among the young women in India is about 71 percent, but surprisingly it is predominantly downwards. The urban areas have higher occupational mobility than the rural areas. However, upward intergenerational occupational mobility is lower among the young SC/ST women compared to the young women belonging to the “Others” caste category. Moreover, upward mobility in the economically and demographically poorer states is much lower than that of other states. Originality/value The present study is the only study which examines how women perform vis-a-vis their mothers in terms of occupational attainment in the Indian context.
01 Jun 2009
Abstract: The United Nations Children's Fund, or UNICEF, was originally created to provide relief for children in countries devastated by the destruction of World War II. After 1950, UNICEF turned to focus on general programs for the improvement of children's welfare worldwide, and in 1965, it was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace for its humanitarian efforts. The organization concentrates on areas in which relatively small expenditures can have a significant impact on the lives of the most disadvantaged children in developing countries, such as the prevention and treatment of disease, child healthcare, malnutrition, illiteracy, and other welfare services.
01 Jan 2007
Abstract: Crimes against the historically marginalized Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (SC and ST) by the upper castes in India represent an extreme form of prejudice and discrimination. In this paper, we investigate whether changes in relative material standards of living between the SCs/STs and upper castes – as measured by the ratio of consumption expenditures of SCs/STs to that of upper castes – are associated with changes in the incidence of crimes against SCs/STs. Based on the hierarchical social structure implied by the caste system, we posit that an increase in the expenditure ratio is positively correlated with the incidence of crimes committed by the upper castes against the lower castes. Using official district level crime data for the period 2001–2010, we find a positive association between crimes and expenditure of SC/ST vis-a-vis the upper castes. Further, distinguishing between violent and non-violent crimes, we find it is the violent crimes that are responsive to changes in economic gaps. Moreover, this relationship is on account of changes in the upper castes’ economic well-being rather than changes in the economic position of the SCs and STs.
TL;DR: Evidence is offered on the relationship between self-reported health and the employment status in Italy using the Survey on Household Income and Wealth (SHIW), which finds that temporary workers, first-job seekers and unemployed individuals are worse off than permanent employees.
Abstract: The considerable increase of non-standard labor contracts, unemployment and inactivity rates raises the question of whether job insecurity and the lack of job opportunities affect physical and mental well-being differently from being employed with an open-ended contract. In this paper we offer evidence on the relationship between Self Reported Health Status (SRHS) and the employment status in Italy using the Survey on Household Income and Wealth; another aim is to investigate whether these potential inequalities have changed with the recent economic downturn (time period 2006-2010). We estimate an ordered logit model with SRHS as response variable based on a fixed-effects approach which has certain advantages with respect to the random-effects formulation and has not been applied before with SRHS data. The fixed-effects nature of the model also allows us to solve the problems of incidental parameters and non-random selection of individuals into different labor market categories. We find that temporary workers, unemployed and inactive individuals are worse off than permanent employees, especially males, young workers, and those living in the center and south of Italy. Health inequalities between unemployed/inactive and permanent workers widen over time for males and young workers, and arise in the north of the country as well.
Abstract: Despite the multiple meta-analyses documenting the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and achievement, none have examined this question outside of English-speaking industrialized countr...