Bio: Akihisa Abe is an academic researcher from Tokyo Medical University. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Apoptosis & Programmed cell death. The author has an hindex of 15, co-authored 34 publication(s) receiving 5382 citation(s).
Daniel J. Klionsky1, Kotb Abdelmohsen2, Akihisa Abe3, Joynal Abedin4 +2519 more•Institutions (695)
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macro-autophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes.
Abstract: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. For example, a key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process including the amount and rate of cargo sequestered and degraded). In particular, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation must be differentiated from stimuli that increase autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. It is worth emphasizing here that lysosomal digestion is a stage of autophagy and evaluating its competence is a crucial part of the evaluation of autophagic flux, or complete autophagy. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. Along these lines, because of the potential for pleiotropic effects due to blocking autophagy through genetic manipulation, it is imperative to target by gene knockout or RNA interference more than one autophagy-related protein. In addition, some individual Atg proteins, or groups of proteins, are involved in other cellular pathways implying that not all Atg proteins can be used as a specific marker for an autophagic process. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
TL;DR: Simultaneously targeting two major intracellular protein degradation systems such as the ubiquitin-proteasome system by BZ and the autophagy-lysosomes system by a macrolide antibiotic enhances ER stress-mediated apoptosis in MM cells.
Abstract: The specific 26S proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BZ) potently induces autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis in multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines (U266, IM-9 and RPMI8226). The macrolide antibiotics including concanamycin A, erythromycin (EM), clarithromycin (CAM) and azithromycin (AZM) all blocked autophagy flux, as assessed by intracellular accumulation of LC3B-II and p62. Combined treatment of BZ and CAM or AZM enhanced cytotoxicity in MM cell lines, although treatment with either CAM or AZM alone exhibited almost no cytotoxicity. This combination also substantially enhanced aggresome formation, intracellular ubiquitinated proteins and induced the proapoptotic transcription factor CHOP (CADD153). Expression levels of the proapoptotic genes transcriptionally regulated by CHOP (BIM, BAX, DR5 and TRB3) were all enhanced by combined treatment with BZ plus CAM, compared with treatment with each reagent alone. Like the MM cell lines, the CHOP+/+ murine embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell line exhibited enhanced cytotoxicity and upregulation of CHOP and its transcriptional targets with a combination of BZ and one of the macrolides. In contrast, CHOP−/− MEF cells exhibited resistance against BZ and almost completely canceled enhanced cytotoxicity with a combination of BZ and a macrolide. These data suggest that ER stress-mediated CHOP induction is involved in pronounced cytotoxicity. Simultaneously targeting two major intracellular protein degradation systems such as the ubiquitin-proteasome system by BZ and the autophagy-lysosome system by a macrolide antibiotic enhances ER stress-mediated apoptosis in MM cells. This result suggests the therapeutic possibility of using a macrolide antibiotic with a proteasome inhibitor for MM therapy.
Daniel J. Klionsky, Kotb Abdelmohsen, Akihisa Abe, Joynal Abedin +2456 more
01 Jan 2016-Parasites & Vectors
TL;DR: Upregulation of cdk4/cyclin D1 may be a primary and critical factor in induction of apoptosis in human lung carcinomas in vivo and inactivation of Rb protein renders cells more prone to apoptosis by abnormal expression of any cell‐cycle protein.
Abstract: The relation between expression of cell cycle–regulator molecules and apoptosis was examined in surgical specimens and cultured human lung carcinoma cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis for 133 cases revealed 2 types of staining pattern. The first group consisted of 95 cases (71.4%) characterized by apoptotic cells showing intensely positive staining for cdk4 and cyclin D1 but negative for other proteins (type A). In the second group (type B), comprising 38 cases (28.6%), apoptotic cells exhibited intense positive staining for any cyclins and cdks. Most of the latter cases had lost expression of Rb protein. When tumor cells retrieved from paraffin-embedded tissue were examined by flow cytometry, higher proportions of cells expressing only cdk4 or cyclin D1 in type A cases and of cells expressing any cyclin or cdk in type B cases showed a subdiploid DNA content. In survival analysis using the LI of apoptotic cells and cyclin/cdk-positive cells, the high-apoptosis/high-cyclin D1 group showed the poorest prognosis. Furthermore, forced overexpression of only cdk4 or cyclin D1 induced apoptosis in cultured cells with normal Rb protein, whereas overexpression of any cyclin or cdk induced apoptosis in cells defective for Rb protein. In conclusion, upregulation of cdk4/cyclin D1 may be a primary and critical factor in induction of apoptosis in human lung carcinomas in vivo. Moreover, inactivation of Rb protein renders cells more prone to apoptosis by abnormal expression of any cell-cycle protein. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Daniel J. Klionsky1, Kotb Abdelmohsen2, Akihisa Abe3, Joynal Abedin4 +2519 more•Institutions (697)
TL;DR: Author(s): Klionsky, DJ; Abdelmohsen, K; Abe, A; Abedin, MJ; Abeliovich, H; A Frozena, AA; Adachi, H, Adeli, K, Adhihetty, PJ; Adler, SG; Agam, G; Agarwal, R; Aghi, MK; Agnello, M; Agostinis, P; Aguilar, PV; Aguirre-Ghis
Abstract: Author(s): Klionsky, DJ; Abdelmohsen, K; Abe, A; Abedin, MJ; Abeliovich, H; Arozena, AA; Adachi, H; Adams, CM; Adams, PD; Adeli, K; Adhihetty, PJ; Adler, SG; Agam, G; Agarwal, R; Aghi, MK; Agnello, M; Agostinis, P; Aguilar, PV; Aguirre-Ghiso, J; Airoldi, EM; Ait-Si-Ali, S; Akematsu, T; Akporiaye, ET; Al-Rubeai, M; Albaiceta, GM; Albanese, C; Albani, D; Albert, ML; Aldudo, J; Algul, H; Alirezaei, M; Alloza, I; Almasan, A; Almonte-Beceril, M; Alnemri, ES; Alonso, C; Altan-Bonnet, N; Altieri, DC; Alvarez, S; Alvarez-Erviti, L; Alves, S; Amadoro, G; Amano, A; Amantini, C; Ambrosio, S; Amelio, I; Amer, AO; Amessou, M; Amon, A; An, Z; Anania, FA; Andersen, SU; Andley, UP; Andreadi, CK; Andrieu-Abadie, N; Anel, A; Ann, DK; Anoopkumar-Dukie, S; Antonioli, M; Aoki, H; Apostolova, N; Aquila, S; Aquilano, K; Araki, K; Arama, E; Aranda, A; Araya, J; Arcaro, A; Arias, E; Arimoto, H; Ariosa, AR; Armstrong, JL; Arnould, T; Arsov, I; Asanuma, K; Askanas, V; Asselin, E; Atarashi, R; Atherton, SS; Atkin, JD; Attardi, LD; Auberger, P; Auburger, G; Aurelian, L; Autelli, R
French Institute of Health and Medical Research1, University of Paris-Sud2, Institut Gustave Roussy3, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center4, Thomas Jefferson University5, University of Massachusetts Medical School6, Roswell Park Cancer Institute7, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine8, Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center9, Goethe University Frankfurt10, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital11, University of Zurich12, University College London13, University of Adelaide14, South Australia Pathology15, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research16, University of Graz17, Istituto Superiore di Sanità18, University of Michigan19, Northwestern University20, University of Rome Tor Vergata21, University of Cambridge22, University of Bern23, Ghent University24, Harvard University25, Karolinska Institutet26, University of Leicester27
01 Jan 2012-Cell Death & Differentiation
TL;DR: A functional classification of cell death subroutines is proposed that applies to both in vitro and in vivo settings and includes extrinsic apoptosis, caspase-dependent or -independent intrinsic programmed cell death, regulated necrosis, autophagic cell death and mitotic catastrophe.
Abstract: In 2009, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) proposed a set of recommendations for the definition of distinct cell death morphologies and for the appropriate use of cell death-related terminology, including 'apoptosis', 'necrosis' and 'mitotic catastrophe'. In view of the substantial progress in the biochemical and genetic exploration of cell death, time has come to switch from morphological to molecular definitions of cell death modalities. Here we propose a functional classification of cell death subroutines that applies to both in vitro and in vivo settings and includes extrinsic apoptosis, caspase-dependent or -independent intrinsic apoptosis, regulated necrosis, autophagic cell death and mitotic catastrophe. Moreover, we discuss the utility of expressions indicating additional cell death modalities. On the basis of the new, revised NCCD classification, cell death subroutines are defined by a series of precise, measurable biochemical features.
Lorenzo Galluzzi1, Lorenzo Galluzzi2, Ilio Vitale3, Stuart A. Aaronson4 +183 more•Institutions (111)
23 Jan 2018-Cell Death & Differentiation
TL;DR: The Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) has formulated guidelines for the definition and interpretation of cell death from morphological, biochemical, and functional perspectives.
Abstract: Over the past decade, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) has formulated guidelines for the definition and interpretation of cell death from morphological, biochemical, and functional perspectives. Since the field continues to expand and novel mechanisms that orchestrate multiple cell death pathways are unveiled, we propose an updated classification of cell death subroutines focusing on mechanistic and essential (as opposed to correlative and dispensable) aspects of the process. As we provide molecularly oriented definitions of terms including intrinsic apoptosis, extrinsic apoptosis, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT)-driven necrosis, necroptosis, ferroptosis, pyroptosis, parthanatos, entotic cell death, NETotic cell death, lysosome-dependent cell death, autophagy-dependent cell death, immunogenic cell death, cellular senescence, and mitotic catastrophe, we discuss the utility of neologisms that refer to highly specialized instances of these processes. The mission of the NCCD is to provide a widely accepted nomenclature on cell death in support of the continued development of the field.
28 Jul 2017-Nature Reviews Cancer
TL;DR: A way forward is suggested for the effective targeting of autophagy by understanding the context-dependent roles of autophile and by capitalizing on modern approaches to clinical trial design.
Abstract: Autophagy is a mechanism by which cellular material is delivered to lysosomes for degradation, leading to the basal turnover of cell components and providing energy and macromolecular precursors. Autophagy has opposing, context-dependent roles in cancer, and interventions to both stimulate and inhibit autophagy have been proposed as cancer therapies. This has led to the therapeutic targeting of autophagy in cancer to be sometimes viewed as controversial. In this Review, we suggest a way forwards for the effective targeting of autophagy by understanding the context-dependent roles of autophagy and by capitalizing on modern approaches to clinical trial design.
10 Oct 2013-Cell Death and Disease
TL;DR: Understanding the novel function of autophagy may allow us to develop a promising therapeutic strategy to enhance the effects of chemotherapy and improve clinical outcomes in the treatment of cancer patients.
Abstract: Induction of cell death and inhibition of cell survival are the main principles of cancer therapy. Resistance to chemotherapeutic agents is a major problem in oncology, which limits the effectiveness of anticancer drugs. A variety of factors contribute to drug resistance, including host factors, specific genetic or epigenetic alterations in the cancer cells and so on. Although various mechanisms by which cancer cells become resistant to anticancer drugs in the microenvironment have been well elucidated, how to circumvent this resistance to improve anticancer efficacy remains to be defined. Autophagy, an important homeostatic cellular recycling mechanism, is now emerging as a crucial player in response to metabolic and therapeutic stresses, which attempts to maintain/restore metabolic homeostasis through the catabolic lysis of excessive or unnecessary proteins and injured or aged organelles. Recently, several studies have shown that autophagy constitutes a potential target for cancer therapy and the induction of autophagy in response to therapeutics can be viewed as having a prodeath or a prosurvival role, which contributes to the anticancer efficacy of these drugs as well as drug resistance. Thus, understanding the novel function of autophagy may allow us to develop a promising therapeutic strategy to enhance the effects of chemotherapy and improve clinical outcomes in the treatment of cancer patients.
TL;DR: This work identifies syntaxin 17 (Stx17) as the autophagosomal SNARE required for fusion with the endosome/lysosome, and reveals a mechanism by which the SNARE protein is available to the completed Autophagosome.
Abstract: The lysosome is a degradative organelle, and its fusion with other organelles is strictly regulated. In contrast to fusion with the late endosome, the mechanisms underlying autophagosome-lysosome fusion remain unknown. Here, we identify syntaxin 17 (Stx17) as the autophagosomal SNARE required for fusion with the endosome/lysosome. Stx17 localizes to the outer membrane of completed autophagosomes but not to the isolation membrane (unclosed intermediate structures); for this reason, the lysosome does not fuse with the isolation membrane. Stx17 interacts with SNAP-29 and the endosomal/lysosomal SNARE VAMP8. Depletion of Stx17 causes accumulation of autophagosomes without degradation. Stx17 has a unique C-terminal hairpin structure mediated by two tandem transmembrane domains containing glycine zipper-like motifs, which is essential for its association with the autophagosomal membrane. These findings reveal a mechanism by which the SNARE protein is available to the completed autophagosome.