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Alain Bernard

Bio: Alain Bernard is an academic researcher from École centrale de Nantes. The author has contributed to research in topics: New product development & Product lifecycle. The author has an hindex of 45, co-authored 423 publications receiving 9764 citations. Previous affiliations of Alain Bernard include Centre national de la recherche scientifique & Institut de Recherche en Communications et Cybernétique de Nantes.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
12 Jun 2008-Nature
TL;DR: This work directly image the atomic density profiles as a function of time, and finds that weak disorder can stop the expansion and lead to the formation of a stationary, exponentially localized wavefunction—a direct signature of Anderson localization.
Abstract: Anderson localization (AL) is a phenomenon in wave physics, occurring when interference between multiple scattering paths causes diffusion to cease. Experimentally, localization has been reported for light waves, microwaves, sound waves and electron gases, but there has been no direct observation of AL for matter waves of any type. The paper reports AL in a Bose–Einstein condensate as it expands in a one-dimensional disordered optical potential. The authors image directly the atomic density profiles as a function of time, and find that weak disorder can stop the expansion and lead to the formation of a stationary exponentially localized wave function — a direct signature of AL. The method can be extended to localization of atomic quantum gases in higher dimensions, and with controlled interactions. In 1958, Anderson predicted the localization1 of electronic wavefunctions in disordered crystals and the resulting absence of diffusion. It is now recognized that Anderson localization is ubiquitous in wave physics2 because it originates from the interference between multiple scattering paths. Experimentally, localization has been reported for light waves3,4,5,6,7, microwaves8,9, sound waves10 and electron gases11. However, there has been no direct observation of exponential spatial localization of matter waves of any type. Here we observe exponential localization of a Bose–Einstein condensate released into a one-dimensional waveguide in the presence of a controlled disorder created by laser speckle12. We operate in a regime of pure Anderson localization, that is, with weak disorder—such that localization results from many quantum reflections of low amplitude—and an atomic density low enough to render interactions negligible. We directly image the atomic density profiles as a function of time, and find that weak disorder can stop the expansion and lead to the formation of a stationary, exponentially localized wavefunction—a direct signature of Anderson localization. We extract the localization length by fitting the exponential wings of the profiles, and compare it to theoretical calculations. The power spectrum of the one-dimensional speckle potentials has a high spatial frequency cutoff, causing exponential localization to occur only when the de Broglie wavelengths of the atoms in the expanding condensate are greater than an effective mobility edge corresponding to that cutoff. In the opposite case, we find that the density profiles decay algebraically, as predicted in ref. 13. The method presented here can be extended to localization of atomic quantum gases in higher dimensions, and with controlled interactions.

1,357 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In the case of aircraft components, AM technology enables low-volume manufacturing, easy integration of design changes and, at least as importantly, piece part reductions to greatly simplify product assembly.
Abstract: The past few decades have seen substantial growth in Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies. However, this growth has mainly been process-driven. The evolution of engineering design to take advantage of the possibilities afforded by AM and to manage the constraints associated with the technology has lagged behind. This paper presents the major opportunities, constraints, and economic considerations for Design for Additive Manufacturing. It explores issues related to design and redesign for direct and indirect AM production. It also highlights key industrial applications, outlines future challenges, and identifies promising directions for research and the exploitation of AM's full potential in industry.

1,132 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The goal of this paper is to review both the understanding of the field and the support tools that exist for the purpose, and identify the trends and possible directions research can evolve in the future.
Abstract: Product design is a highly involved, often ill-defined, complex and iterative process, and the needs and specifications of the required artifact get more refined only as the design process moves toward its goal. An effective computer support tool that helps the designer make better-informed decisions requires efficient knowledge representation schemes. In today's world, there is a virtual explosion in the amount of raw data available to the designer, and knowledge representation is critical in order to sift through this data and make sense of it. In addition, the need to stay competitive has shrunk product development time through the use of simultaneous and collaborative design processes, which depend on effective transfer of knowledge between teams. Finally, the awareness that decisions made early in the design process have a higher impact in terms of energy, cost, and sustainability, has resulted in the need to project knowledge typically required in the later stages of design to the earlier stages. Research in design rationale systems, product families, systems engineering, and ontology engineering has sought to capture knowledge from earlier product design decisions, from the breakdown of product functions and associated physical features, and from customer requirements and feedback reports. VR (Virtual reality) systems and multidisciplinary modeling have enabled the simulation of scenarios in the manufacture, assembly, and use of the product. This has helped capture vital knowledge from these stages of the product life and use it in design validation and testing. While there have been considerable and significant developments in knowledge capture and representation in product design, it is useful to sometimes review our position in the area, study the evolution of research in product design, and from past and current trends, try and foresee future developments. The goal of this paper is thus to review both our understanding of the field and the support tools that exist for the purpose, and identify the trends and possible directions research can evolve in the future.

583 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the challenges of managing product variety throughout the entire product life cycle, and the effective co-development of variants and their manufacturing systems to ensure economic sustainability.
Abstract: A great challenge facing industry today is managing variety throughout the entire products life cycle. Drivers of products variety, its benefits, pre-requisites and associated complexity and cost are presented. Enhancing consumers’ value through variety and approaches for achieving it efficiently including modularity, commonality and differentiation are discussed. Variant-oriented manufacturing systems paradigms, as enablers of product variety, and the effective co-development of variants and their manufacturing systems to ensure economic sustainability are reviewed. Industrial applications and guidelines to achieve economy of scope with advantages of economy of scale are discussed. Perspectives and insights on future research in this field are offered.

536 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a 3D optical disordered potential with short correlation lengths in all directions was used to study the 3D localization of ultracold atoms suspended against gravity, and released in the disordered field.
Abstract: We report a study of three-dimensional (3D) localization of ultracold atoms suspended against gravity, and released in a 3D optical disordered potential with short correlation lengths in all directions. We observe density profiles composed of a steady localized part and a diffusive part. Our observations are compatible with the self-consistent theory of Anderson localization, taking into account the specific features of the experiment, and in particular the broad energy distribution of the atoms placed in the disordered potential. The localization we observe cannot be interpreted as trapping of particles with energy below the classical percolation threshold.

353 citations


Cited by
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Book
01 Jan 2008
TL;DR: Nonaka and Takeuchi as discussed by the authors argue that there are two types of knowledge: explicit knowledge, contained in manuals and procedures, and tacit knowledge, learned only by experience, and communicated only indirectly, through metaphor and analogy.
Abstract: How have Japanese companies become world leaders in the automotive and electronics industries, among others? What is the secret of their success? Two leading Japanese business experts, Ikujiro Nonaka and Hirotaka Takeuchi, are the first to tie the success of Japanese companies to their ability to create new knowledge and use it to produce successful products and technologies. In The Knowledge-Creating Company, Nonaka and Takeuchi provide an inside look at how Japanese companies go about creating this new knowledge organizationally. The authors point out that there are two types of knowledge: explicit knowledge, contained in manuals and procedures, and tacit knowledge, learned only by experience, and communicated only indirectly, through metaphor and analogy. U.S. managers focus on explicit knowledge. The Japanese, on the other hand, focus on tacit knowledge. And this, the authors argue, is the key to their success--the Japanese have learned how to transform tacit into explicit knowledge. To explain how this is done--and illuminate Japanese business practices as they do so--the authors range from Greek philosophy to Zen Buddhism, from classical economists to modern management gurus, illustrating the theory of organizational knowledge creation with case studies drawn from such firms as Honda, Canon, Matsushita, NEC, Nissan, 3M, GE, and even the U.S. Marines. For instance, using Matsushita's development of the Home Bakery (the world's first fully automated bread-baking machine for home use), they show how tacit knowledge can be converted to explicit knowledge: when the designers couldn't perfect the dough kneading mechanism, a software programmer apprenticed herself withthe master baker at Osaka International Hotel, gained a tacit understanding of kneading, and then conveyed this information to the engineers. In addition, the authors show that, to create knowledge, the best management style is neither top-down nor bottom-up, but rather what they call "middle-up-down," in which the middle managers form a bridge between the ideals of top management and the chaotic realities of the frontline. As we make the turn into the 21st century, a new society is emerging. Peter Drucker calls it the "knowledge society," one that is drastically different from the "industrial society," and one in which acquiring and applying knowledge will become key competitive factors. Nonaka and Takeuchi go a step further, arguing that creating knowledge will become the key to sustaining a competitive advantage in the future. Because the competitive environment and customer preferences changes constantly, knowledge perishes quickly. With The Knowledge-Creating Company, managers have at their fingertips years of insight from Japanese firms that reveal how to create knowledge continuously, and how to exploit it to make successful new products, services, and systems.

3,668 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

3,152 citations

01 Jan 1993

2,271 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: The process of innovation must be viewed as a series of changes in a complete system not only of hardware, but also of market environment, production facilities and knowledge, and the social contexts of the innovation organization as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Models that depict innovation as a smooth, well-behaved linear process badly misspecify the nature and direction of the causal factors at work. Innovation is complex, uncertain, somewhat disorderly, and subject to changes of many sorts. Innovation is also difficult to measure and demands close coordination of adequate technical knowledge and excellent market judgment in order to satisfy economic, technological, and other types of constraints—all simultaneously. The process of innovation must be viewed as a series of changes in a complete system not only of hardware, but also of market environment, production facilities and knowledge, and the social contexts of the innovation organization.

2,154 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of advances in this field is presented and discussed the possibilities offered by this approach to quantum simulation, as well as the possibilities of quantum simulation with ultracold quantum gases.
Abstract: Experiments with ultracold quantum gases provide a platform for creating many-body systems that can be well controlled and whose parameters can be tuned over a wide range. These properties put these systems in an ideal position for simulating problems that are out of reach for classical computers. This review surveys key advances in this field and discusses the possibilities offered by this approach to quantum simulation.

1,914 citations