Author

# Alan E. Reed

Bio: Alan E. Reed is an academic researcher from University of Wisconsin-Madison. The author has contributed to research in topics: Natural bond orbital & Chemical bond. The author has an hindex of 19, co-authored 27 publications receiving 30169 citations.

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15,091 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a method of "natural population analysis" was developed to calculate atomic charges and orbital populations of molecular wave functions in general atomic orbital basis sets, which seems to exhibit improved numerical stability and to better describe the electron distribution in compounds of high ionic character.

Abstract: A method of ‘‘natural population analysis’’ has been developed to calculate atomic charges and orbital populations of molecular wave functions in general atomic orbital basis sets. The natural analysis is an alternative to conventional Mulliken population analysis, and seems to exhibit improved numerical stability and to better describe the electron distribution in compounds of high ionic character, such as those containing metal atoms. We calculated ab initio SCF‐MO wave functions for compounds of type CH3X and LiX (X=F, OH, NH2, CH3, BH2, BeH, Li, H) in a variety of basis sets to illustrate the generality of the method, and to compare the natural populations with results of Mulliken analysis, density integration, and empirical measures of ionic character. Natural populations are found to give a satisfactory description of these molecules, providing a unified treatment of covalent and extreme ionic limits at modest computational cost.

8,332 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors carried out a natural bond orbital analysis of hydrogen bonding in the water dimer for the near Hartree-Fock wave function of Popkie, Kistenmacher, and Clementi, extending previous studies based on smaller basis sets and less realistic geometry.

Abstract: We have carried out a natural bond orbital analysis of hydrogen bonding in the water dimer for the near‐Hartree–Fock wave function of Popkie, Kistenmacher, and Clementi, extending previous studies based on smaller basis sets and less realistic geometry. We find that interactions which may properly be described as ‘‘charge transfer’’ (particularly the n‐σ*OH interaction along the H‐bond axis) play a critical role in the formation of the hydrogen bond, and without these interactions the water dimer would be 3–5 kcal/mol repulsive at the observed equilibrium distance. We discuss this result in relationship to Klemperer’s general picture of the bonding in van der Waals molecules, and to previous theoretical analyses of hydrogen bonding by the method of Kitaura and Morokuma.

2,603 citations

01 Jan 2013

TL;DR: In this article, the authors carried out a natural bond orbital analysis of hydrogen bonding in the water dimer for the near Hartree-Fock wave function of Popkie, Kistenmacher, and Clementi, extending previous studies based on smaller basis sets and less realistic geometry.

Abstract: We have carried out a natural bond orbital analysis of hydrogen bonding in the water dimer for the near‐Hartree–Fock wave function of Popkie, Kistenmacher, and Clementi, extending previous studies based on smaller basis sets and less realistic geometry. We find that interactions which may properly be described as ‘‘charge transfer’’ (particularly the n‐σ*OH interaction along the H‐bond axis) play a critical role in the formation of the hydrogen bond, and without these interactions the water dimer would be 3–5 kcal/mol repulsive at the observed equilibrium distance. We discuss this result in relationship to Klemperer’s general picture of the bonding in van der Waals molecules, and to previous theoretical analyses of hydrogen bonding by the method of Kitaura and Morokuma.

2,043 citations

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TL;DR: The method of natural localized molecular orbitals (NLMOs) as discussed by the authors is an extension of the previously developed natural atomic orbital (NAO) and natural bond orbital (NBO) methods, and uses only the information contained in the one particle density matrix.

Abstract: The method of natural localized molecular orbitals (NLMOs) is presented as a novel and efficient technique for obtaining LMOs for SCF and CI wave functions. It is an extension of the previously developed natural atomic orbital (NAO) and natural bond orbital (NBO) methods, and uses only the information contained in the one‐particle density matrix. Results are presented for methane and cytosine to indicate that NLMOs closely resemble LMOs obtained by the Boys and Edmiston–Ruedenberg methods, with the exception that the NLMO procedure automatically preserves the MO σ–π separation in planar molecules. The computation time is modest, generally only a small fraction of the SCF computation time. In addition, the derivation of NLMOs from NBOs gives direct insight into the nature of the LMO ‘‘delocalization tails,’’ thus enhancing the role of LMOs as a bridge between chemical intuition and molecular wave functions.

1,948 citations

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TL;DR: A description of the ab initio quantum chemistry package GAMESS, which can be treated with wave functions ranging from the simplest closed‐shell case up to a general MCSCF case, permitting calculations at the necessary level of sophistication.

Abstract: A description of the ab initio quantum chemistry package GAMESS is presented. Chemical systems containing atoms through radon can be treated with wave functions ranging from the simplest closed-shell case up to a general MCSCF case, permitting calculations at the necessary level of sophistication. Emphasis is given to novel features of the program. The parallelization strategy used in the RHF, ROHF, UHF, and GVB sections of the program is described, and detailed speecup results are given. Parallel calculations can be run on ordinary workstations as well as dedicated parallel machines. © John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

18,546 citations

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TL;DR: The “Activation‐strain TS interaction” (ATS) model of chemical reactivity is reviewed as a conceptual framework for understanding how activation barriers of various types of reaction mechanisms arise and how they may be controlled, for example, in organic chemistry or homogeneous catalysis.

Abstract: We present the theoretical and technical foundations of the Amsterdam Density Functional (ADF) program with a survey of the characteristics of the code (numerical integration, density fitting for the Coulomb potential, and STO basis functions). Recent developments enhance the efficiency of ADF (e.g., parallelization, near order-N scaling, QM/MM) and its functionality (e.g., NMR chemical shifts, COSMO solvent effects, ZORA relativistic method, excitation energies, frequency-dependent (hyper)polarizabilities, atomic VDD charges). In the Applications section we discuss the physical model of the electronic structure and the chemical bond, i.e., the Kohn–Sham molecular orbital (MO) theory, and illustrate the power of the Kohn–Sham MO model in conjunction with the ADF-typical fragment approach to quantitatively understand and predict chemical phenomena. We review the “Activation-strain TS interaction” (ATS) model of chemical reactivity as a conceptual framework for understanding how activation barriers of various types of (competing) reaction mechanisms arise and how they may be controlled, for example, in organic chemistry or homogeneous catalysis. Finally, we include a brief discussion of exemplary applications in the field of biochemistry (structure and bonding of DNA) and of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to indicate how this development further reinforces the ADF tools for the analysis of chemical phenomena. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Comput Chem 22: 931–967, 2001

8,490 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a method of "natural population analysis" was developed to calculate atomic charges and orbital populations of molecular wave functions in general atomic orbital basis sets, which seems to exhibit improved numerical stability and to better describe the electron distribution in compounds of high ionic character.

Abstract: A method of ‘‘natural population analysis’’ has been developed to calculate atomic charges and orbital populations of molecular wave functions in general atomic orbital basis sets. The natural analysis is an alternative to conventional Mulliken population analysis, and seems to exhibit improved numerical stability and to better describe the electron distribution in compounds of high ionic character, such as those containing metal atoms. We calculated ab initio SCF‐MO wave functions for compounds of type CH3X and LiX (X=F, OH, NH2, CH3, BH2, BeH, Li, H) in a variety of basis sets to illustrate the generality of the method, and to compare the natural populations with results of Mulliken analysis, density integration, and empirical measures of ionic character. Natural populations are found to give a satisfactory description of these molecules, providing a unified treatment of covalent and extreme ionic limits at modest computational cost.

8,332 citations

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TL;DR: This paper presents a meta-analysis of the chiral stationary phase transition of Na6(CO3)(SO4)2, a major component of the response of the immune system to Na2CO3.

Abstract: Ju Mei,†,‡,∥ Nelson L. C. Leung,†,‡,∥ Ryan T. K. Kwok,†,‡ Jacky W. Y. Lam,†,‡ and Ben Zhong Tang*,†,‡,§ †HKUST-Shenzhen Research Institute, Hi-Tech Park, Nanshan, Shenzhen 518057, China ‡Department of Chemistry, HKUST Jockey Club Institute for Advanced Study, Institute of Molecular Functional Materials, Division of Biomedical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Molecular Neuroscience, Division of Life Science, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China Guangdong Innovative Research Team, SCUT-HKUST Joint Research Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China

5,658 citations

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TL;DR: The hydrogen bond is the most important of all directional intermolecular interactions, operative in determining molecular conformation, molecular aggregation, and the function of a vast number of chemical systems ranging from inorganic to biological.

Abstract: The hydrogen bond is the most important of all directional intermolecular interactions. It is operative in determining molecular conformation, molecular aggregation, and the function of a vast number of chemical systems ranging from inorganic to biological. Research into hydrogen bonds experienced a stagnant period in the 1980s, but re-opened around 1990, and has been in rapid development since then. In terms of modern concepts, the hydrogen bond is understood as a very broad phenomenon, and it is accepted that there are open borders to other effects. There are dozens of different types of X-H.A hydrogen bonds that occur commonly in the condensed phases, and in addition there are innumerable less common ones. Dissociation energies span more than two orders of magnitude (about 0.2-40 kcal mol(-1)). Within this range, the nature of the interaction is not constant, but its electrostatic, covalent, and dispersion contributions vary in their relative weights. The hydrogen bond has broad transition regions that merge continuously with the covalent bond, the van der Waals interaction, the ionic interaction, and also the cation-pi interaction. All hydrogen bonds can be considered as incipient proton transfer reactions, and for strong hydrogen bonds, this reaction can be in a very advanced state. In this review, a coherent survey is given on all these matters.

5,153 citations