Bio: Alan Manning is an academic researcher from Brigham Young University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Information design & Sentence. The author has an hindex of 9, co-authored 43 publications receiving 255 citations. Previous affiliations of Alan Manning include Louisiana State University & Idaho State University.
TL;DR: Any evaluation of visuals, either textual or graphic, must be made with reference to rhetorical contexts in which audience needs and graphic/textual media choices should align with authorial goals.
Abstract: Technical communication textbooks tend to address visual rhetoric as two separate units, usually a chapter on document design and then a chapter on graphics. We advocate teaching a unified system of visual rhetoric that encompasses both text and graphics within a common visual-language system. Using C. S. Peirce's three-part theory of rhetoric and his ten categories of sign, we offer an integrated semiotic system, interpreting in one model the effectiveness of graphics, document design, and formatting, all considered as subtypes in this proposed visual rhetoric, organized around three primary communication goals: to decorate, to indicate, and to inform. Thus, any evaluation of visuals, either textual or graphic, must be made with reference to rhetorical contexts in which audience needs and graphic/textual media choices should align with authorial goals
••01 Oct 2012
TL;DR: Results support correlation between specific typeface features and specific emotional parameters (amusement vs. agitation vs. focus), explaining findings of previous studies, and suggesting various classroom approaches to purpose-driven typeface selection.
Abstract: Various studies have correlated specific visual characteristics of typefaces with specific overall emotional effects: curvilinear forms and open letter shapes generally feel “friendly” but also “formal” or “informal,” depending on other factors; large contrasts in stroke widths, cap height, and aspect ratio generally feel “interesting,” but also “attractive” or “aggressive,” depending on other factors; low-variety and low-contrast forms generally feel “professional” but also “reliable” or “boring.” Although the current findings on typeface personality are useful, they have not indicated a systematic explanation for why specific physical typeface forms have the specific emotion effects that they do. This paper will report results of an empirical study in which 102 participants indicated their immediate emotional responses to each of 36 distinct typeface designs. Results support correlation between specific typeface features (variety vs. contrast vs. pattern) and specific emotional parameters (amusement vs. agitation vs. focus), explaining findings of previous studies, suggesting various classroom approaches to purpose-driven typeface selection.
TL;DR: In this paper, the ethical implications of adjusting resume keywords for the sole purpose of increasing searchbot hits are discussed, and the authors conclude by suggesting several techniques to business communication instructors.
Abstract: To date, business communication scholars and textbook writers have encouraged resume rhetoric that accommodates technology, for example, recommending keyword-enhancing techniques to attract the attention of searchbots: customized search engines that allow companies to automatically scan resumes for relevant keywords. However, few scholars have discussed the ethical implications of adjusting resume keywords for the sole purpose of increasing searchbot hits. As the resume genre has evolved over the past century, strategies of resume “padding” have likewise evolved, at each stage violating one of four maxims of the Cooperative Principle. Direct factual misrepresentation violates the maxim of quality and is of course discouraged, but resume writers have turned in succession to violations of manner (formatting tricks) and then more recently to violations of quantity and/or relevance with deceptive keywording techniques. The authors conclude by suggesting several techniques to business communication instructors...
••13 Jul 2008
TL;DR: This paper proposed a comprehensive language for visual information that is derived from terms and concepts already extant in the visual rhetoric literature, but with a novel, unifying organization which, they demonstrate, is organically grammatical in the precise sense of the word.
Abstract: Information economy, indeed any economy, requires some common medium of exchange. We therefore seek clarity and commonality in the vocabulary of visual language. Visual vocabularies have of course been proposed by others, but we can demonstrate that, so far, they possess an artificiality effectively preventing widespread adoption. Therefore, what we propose is a comprehensive language for visuals that is derived from terms and concepts already extant in the visual rhetoric literature, but with a novel, unifying organization which, we will demonstrate, is organically grammatical in the precise sense of the word. Our goal is not to silence other language scholars who interpret visuals in their own ways but rather to offer up a safe space where, theories and ideologies and egos aside, we can collectively name what we collectively experience in visual information, then as technical communicators read and create visuals with a fuller understanding of how visuals work in relation to and separate from textual interpretation.
••19 Jul 2009
TL;DR: The authors proposed a new model of emotional response that treats color/form triggers of emotion quality separately from trigger of emotion evaluation, and demonstrated a stable emotion-spectrum response in a population of viewers, to any given combination of form and color.
Abstract: Previous empirical studies have shown consistent emotional responses to form and color, across a variety of contexts and especially across cultures. What varies across contexts and cultures is evaluation of the color/form/emotion response. For example, both the color red and jagged, high contrast forms consistently evoke one emotional response neutrally described as agitation or activation, a response evaluated negatively as anger or positively as excitement. Standard taxonomies of emotion do not consistently distinguish between the positive/negative evaluation of an emotion (e.g. committed/obsessed) and its raw quality (e.g. focused). Consequently, the consistent relationships between form/color and emotion have been obscured. We propose a new model of emotional response that treats color/form triggers of emotion quality separately from triggers of emotion evaluation. This new model identifies a spectrum of emotional quality (agitated-stimulated-amused-rested-focused-organized-concerned) generally parallel to the familiar color spectrum (red-orange-yellow-green-blue-indigo-violet). With this model, we can demonstrate a stable emotion-spectrum response in a population of viewers, to any given combination of form and color. This paper will report on empirical tests of this emotion spectrum model and discuss implications for usability testing of visual information designs.
01 Jan 2014
TL;DR: Investigation of the phonological length of utterance in native Kannada speaking children of 3 to 7 years age revealed increase inPMLU score as the age increased suggesting a developmental trend in PMLU acquisition.
Abstract: Phonological mean length of utterance (PMLU) is a whole word measure for measuring phonological proficiency. It measures the length of a child’s word and the number of correct consonants. The present study investigated the phonological length of utterance in native Kannada speaking children of 3 to 7 years age. A total of 400 subjects in the age range of 3-7 years participated in the study. Spontaneous speech samples were elicited from each child and analyzed for PMLU as per the rules suggested by Ingram. Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis test were employed to compare the differences between the means of PMLU scores across the gender and the age respectively. The result revealed increase in PMLU score as the age increased suggesting a developmental trend in PMLU acquisition. No statistically significant differences were observed between the means of PMLU scores across the gender.
TL;DR: Viewing personnel selection as a network of adaptive relationships among job market actors enables an understanding of both classic and underexplored micro- and macro-level selection phenomena and their dynamic interactions.
Abstract: Personnel selection involves exchanges of information between job market actors (applicants and organizations). These actors do not have an incentive to exchange accurate information about their ability and commitment to the employment relationship unless it is to their advantage. This state of affairs explains numerous phenomena in personnel selection (e.g., faking). Signaling theory describes a mechanism by which parties with partly conflicting interests (and thus an incentive for deception) can nevertheless exchange accurate information. We apply signaling theory to personnel selection, distinguishing between adaptive relationships between applicants and organizations, among applicants, and among organizations. In each case, repeated adaptations and counteradaptations between actors can lead to situations of equilibrium or escalation (arms races). We show that viewing personnel selection as a network of adaptive relationships among job market actors enables an understanding of both classic and underexplored micro- and macro-level selection phenomena and their dynamic interactions.