Bio: Albrecht Rabenau is an academic researcher from Max Planck Society. The author has contributed to research in topics: Lithium nitride & Crystal structure. The author has an hindex of 25, co-authored 102 publications receiving 2995 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, the previously common distinction between hydrothermal conditions below and pneumatolytic conditions above the critical point is no longer made, since no discontinuities are observed upon exceeding the critical conditions.
Abstract: “Hydrothermal synthesis” usually refers to heterogeneous reactions in aqueous media above 100°C and 1 bar. The previously common distinction between hydrothermal conditions below and pneumatolytic conditions above the critical point is no longer made, since no discontinuities are observed upon exceeding the critical conditions. Under hydrothermal conditions, reactants otherwise difficult to dissolve go into solution as complexes, in whose formation water itself or very soluble “mineralizers” can participate. Thus, one can obtain the conditions of chemical transport reactions, of which hydrothermal syntheses can be considered a special case. During recent decades in the geological sciences—in which the method is also historically rooted—it has received a strong impulse, whose effect on preparative solid state chemistry is discussed here.
TL;DR: The crystal structure of Li 3 N was determined using single crystals obtained from the reaction of N 2 with liquid lithium as discussed by the authors, and the proposed structure of Zintl and Brauer could be confirmed.
Abstract: The crystal structure of Li 3 N was determined using single crystals obtained from the reaction of N 2 with liquid lithium. The proposed structure of Zintl and Brauer could be confirmed. Li 3 N is hexagonal: a = 3.648(1) A , c = 3.875(1) A , Z = 1. The space group was determined to be p 6/ mmm . The structure was refined, with anisotropic temperature factors, to R = 0.025 and R ( w ) = 0.026.
TL;DR: In this paper, a model for the conduction mechanism of the Li + -ions is presented, and a material for application at higher temperatures could be found among the lithium-nitride-halides.
Abstract: Lithium nitride is a solid electrolyte with a high Li + -conductivity at ambient temperatures and attractive properties for an application in a primary battery. The proposed presence of a polarizable ion N 3- in the unique hexagonal structure could be proved by measurements of Czochralski-grown single crystals applying the methods of modern solid state science, particular X-ray diffraction. A model for the conduction mechanism of the Li + -ions is presented. Using crystal-chemical considerations a material for application at higher temperatures could be found among the lithium-nitride-halides.
TL;DR: In den letzten Dekaden hat die Methode in den Geowissenschaften, in denen sie auch historyisch angesiedelt ist, starke Impulse erfahren, deren ubertragung auf die praparative Festkorperchemie diskutiert wird as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Unter Hydrothermalsynthesen versteht man heute heterogene Reaktionen in wasrigem Medium oberhalb 100°C und 1 bar. Die fruher ubliche Unterscheidung zwischen hydrothermalen und pneumatolytischen Bedingungen (unterhalb bzw. oberhalb des kritischen Punktes) wird nicht mehr gemacht, da beim uberschreiten kritischer Punkte keine Diskontinuitaten beobachtet werden. Unter hydrothermalen Bedingungen gehen sonst schwerlosliche Stoffe als Komplexe in Losung, an deren Bildung Wasser selbst oder gut losliche „Mineralisatoren” beteiligt sein konnen. Dabei gelten die Gesetzmasigkeiten chemischer Transportreaktionen, als deren Spezialfall die Hydrothermalsynthese angesehen werden kann. In den letzten Dekaden hat die Methode in den Geowissenschaften – in denen sie auch historisch angesiedelt ist – starke Impulse erfahren, deren ubertragung auf die praparative Festkorperchemie diskutiert wird.
TL;DR: The current understanding on Li anodes is summarized, the recent key progress in materials design and advanced characterization techniques are highlighted, and the opportunities and possible directions for future development ofLi anodes in applications are discussed.
Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries have had a profound impact on our daily life, but inherent limitations make it difficult for Li-ion chemistries to meet the growing demands for portable electronics, electric vehicles and grid-scale energy storage. Therefore, chemistries beyond Li-ion are currently being investigated and need to be made viable for commercial applications. The use of metallic Li is one of the most favoured choices for next-generation Li batteries, especially Li-S and Li-air systems. After falling into oblivion for several decades because of safety concerns, metallic Li is now ready for a revival, thanks to the development of investigative tools and nanotechnology-based solutions. In this Review, we first summarize the current understanding on Li anodes, then highlight the recent key progress in materials design and advanced characterization techniques, and finally discuss the opportunities and possible directions for future development of Li anodes in applications.
TL;DR: Light scattering experiments revealed that the radius of gyration had a linear dependence on the molar mass of the aggregates, which suggests that the particles are in the form of rods or ribbons, or at least some elongated structure.
Abstract: Equivalent weight (EW) is the number of grams of dry Nafion per mole of sulfonic acid groups when the material is in the acid form. This is an average EW in the sense that the comonomer sequence distribution (that is usually unknown to the investigator and largely unreported) gives a distribution in m in this formula. EW can be ascertained by acid-base titration, by analysis of atomic sulfur, and by FT-IR spectroscopy. The relationship between EW and m is EW ) 100m + 446 so that, for example, the side chains are separated by around 14 CF2 units in a membrane of 1100 EW. Common at the time of this writing are Nafion 117 films. The designation “117” refers to a film having 1100 EW and a nominal thickness of 0.007 in., although 115 and 112 films have also been available. Early-reported studies involved 1200 EW samples as well as special experimental varieties, some being rather thin. The equivalent weight is related to the property more often seen in the field of conventional ion exchange resins, namely the ion exchange capacity (IEC), by the equation IEC ) 1000/EW. The mention of the molecular weight of high equivalent weight (EW > 1000 g‚mol-1) Nafion is almost absent in the literature, although the range 105-106 Da has been mentioned. As this polymer does not form true solutions, the common methods of light scattering and gel permeation chromatography cannot be used to determine molecular weight as well as the size and shape of isolated, truly dissolved molecules. Studies of the structure of this polymer in solvent (albeit not a true solution) will be mentioned in the scattering section of this review. It should be noted that Curtin et al. performed size exclusion chromatography determinations of the molecular weight distribution in Nafion aqueous dispersions after they were heated to high temperatures (230, 250, and 270 °C).1 Before heating, there was a high molecular weight shoulder on a bimodal distribution, due to molecular aggregates, but this shoulder disappeared upon heating, which indicated that the aggregates were disrupted. The peaks for the monomodal distribution for the heated samples were all located at molecular weights slightly higher than 105 g‚mol-1. Also, light scattering experiments revealed that the radius of gyration had a linear dependence on the molar mass of the aggregates, which suggests that the particles are in the form of rods or ribbons, or at least some elongated structure. Nafion ionomers are usually derived from the thermoplastic -SO2F precursor form that can be extruded into sheets of required thickness. Strong interactions between the ionic groups are an obstacle to melt processing. This precursor does not possess the clustered morphology that will be of great concern in this article but does possess Teflon-like crystallinity which persists when the sulfonyl fluoride form is converted to, for example, the K+ form by reacting it with KOH in water and DMSO. Thereafter, the -SO3H form is achieved by soaking the film in a sufficiently concentrated aqueous acid solution. Extrusion of the sulfonyl fluoride precursor can cause microstructural orientation in the machine direction, * Address correspondence to either author. Phone: 601-266-5595/ 4480. Fax: 601-266-5635. E-mail: Kenneth.Mauritz@usm.edu; RBMoore@usm.edu. 4535 Chem. Rev. 2004, 104, 4535−4585
TL;DR: A lithium superionic conductor, Li(10)GeP(2)S(12) that has a new three-dimensional framework structure that exhibits an extremely high lithium ionic conductivity of 12 mS cm(-1) at room temperature, which represents the highest conductivity achieved in a solid electrolyte, exceeding even those of liquid organic electrolytes.
Abstract: Batteries are a key technology in modern society. They are used to power electric and hybrid electric vehicles and to store wind and solar energy in smart grids. Electrochemical devices with high energy and power densities can currently be powered only by batteries with organic liquid electrolytes. However, such batteries require relatively stringent safety precautions, making large-scale systems very complicated and expensive. The application of solid electrolytes is currently limited because they attain practically useful conductivities (10(-2) S cm(-1)) only at 50-80 °C, which is one order of magnitude lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. Here, we report a lithium superionic conductor, Li(10)GeP(2)S(12) that has a new three-dimensional framework structure. It exhibits an extremely high lithium ionic conductivity of 12 mS cm(-1) at room temperature. This represents the highest conductivity achieved in a solid electrolyte, exceeding even those of liquid organic electrolytes. This new solid-state battery electrolyte has many advantages in terms of device fabrication (facile shaping, patterning and integration), stability (non-volatile), safety (non-explosive) and excellent electrochemical properties (high conductivity and wide potential window).
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explain the transport properties and the swelling behaviour of NAFION and different sulfonated polyetherketones in terms of distinct differences on the microstructures and in the p K a of the acidic functional groups.
Abstract: The transport properties and the swelling behaviour of NAFION and different sulfonated polyetherketones are explained in terms of distinct differences on the microstructures and in the p K a of the acidic functional groups. The less pronounced hydrophobic/hydrophilic separation of sulfonated polyetherketones compared to NAFION corresponds to narrower, less connected hydrophilic channels and to larger separations between less acidic sulfonic acid functional groups. At high water contents, this is shown to significantly reduce electroosmotic drag and water permeation whilst maintaining high proton conductivity. Blending of sulfonated polyetherketones with other polyaryls even further reduces the solvent permeation (a factor of 20 compared to NAFION), increases the membrane flexibility in the dry state and leads to an improved swelling behaviour. Therefore, polymers based on sulfonated polyetherketones are not only interesting low-cost alternative membrane material for hydrogen fuel cell applications, they may also help to reduce the problems associated with high water drag and high methanol cross-over in direct liquid methanol fuel cells (DMFC). The relatively high conductivities observed for oligomers containing imidazole as functional groups may be exploited in fully polymeric proton conducting systems with no volatile proton solvent operating at temperatures significantly beyond 100°C, where methanol vapour may be used as a fuel in DMFCs.