Bio: Aleksander Zarzeka is an academic researcher from Medical University of Warsaw. The author has contributed to research in topics: Evidence-based practice & Public health. The author has an hindex of 5, co-authored 55 publications receiving 93 citations.
TL;DR: The Polish version of the EBP2Q is comparable in terms of psychometry to the original English version, and can be used to assess knowledge, attitudes, and skills concerning EBP among students and practicing professional nurses and midwives.
Abstract: Decisions about patient care in clinical practice should be made based on proven scientific evidence of efficacy and safety (i.e., evidence-based practice [EBP]). Currently, there are no available tools in Poland for assessing the knowledge and attitudes of specialists in health sciences towards EBP. Therefore, by validating the Polish version of the original English Evidence-Based Practice Profile Questionnaire (EBP2Q), we may provide an appropriate instrument for assessing EBP. The validation group consisted of 1,362 people, including nurses and midwives taking the specialization exam, second-degree students in nursing/midwifery, and staff of selected municipal and clinical hospitals in Warsaw, Pruszkow, and Chelm. The study was conducted from March to June 2014. The following psychometric properties of the EBP2Q were assessed: reliability (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, and test-retest), validity (exploratory factor analysis, Spearman’s r correlation coefficient, and assessment of inter-group differences), as well as unidimensionality of domains (principal component analysis). All domains of the EBP2Q were characterized by high reliability (Cronbach’s alpha ranging from 0.800 to 0.972). The Polish version showed a strong similarity of factor structure with the original English EBP2Q, indicating that the condition for theoretical validity is fulfilled. Maintenance of the theoretical and discriminative validity and unidimensionality of five domains of the EBP2Q was confirmed. The Polish version of the EBP2Q is comparable in terms of psychometry to the original English version. This questionnaire can be used to assess knowledge, attitudes, and skills concerning EBP among students and practicing professional nurses and midwives. The future validation of the EBP2Q in other groups of specialists in health sciences may increase the scope of applicability of this tool.
TL;DR: Life-long updating knowledge in the area of EBP by participation in various forms of postgraduate education can produce improvements in the knowledge, behaviours and attitudes of nurses in creating a positive EBP profile.
Abstract: Purpose. Evidence-based practice (EBP) is recognized by the healthcare community as the gold standard for the provision of safe and compassionate healthcare. The aim was to describe nurses’ knowled...
TL;DR: The psychometric properties of CSAS-P were comparable to the English language original and can be used to evaluate attitudes towards learning communication skills among registered nurses.
Abstract: Objectives To translate and validate the Communication Skills Attitude Scale in the Polish language (CSAS-P) and its adaptation for use among registered nurses. Design A cross-sectional descriptive design was used in order to translate and validate the CSAS-P. The following psychometric properties of CSAS-P were evaluated: content validity (content validity index), theoretical relevance (exploratory and confirmative factor analysis), one-dimensionality of subscales (principal component analysis), internal consistency (Cronbach’s α), test–retest reliability and discriminant validity. Setting Participants were identified and recruited from the Centre for Postgraduate Education for Nurses and Midwives in Warsaw, Poland. Participants The validation group comprised 2014 registered nurses who were undertaking a spring specialisation exam in 2017. Results The overall content validity index was >0.80, which was interpreted as indicating validity. The factor structure of CSAS-P differed from the original version, and removing three items from the scale better fit the data. The positive attitude subscale (11 items) and negative attitude subscale (12 items) were characterised by one-dimensionality and high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α=0.901 and 0.802, respectively). Test–retest analysis confirmed the stability of the measurement for both subscales and particular items. Nurses with prior participation in communication courses scored significantly higher than those without such education (p Conclusions The psychometric properties of CSAS-P were comparable to the English language original. Further validation of CSAS-P in other groups of healthcare professionals may increase its applicability. CSAS-P can be used to evaluate attitudes towards learning communication skills among registered nurses.
TL;DR: Due to the specificity of a municipal police officer’s occupation, special attention should be paid to the occupational stress risk factors characteristic for this group of professionals, and measures should be taken to reduce the number of stressors.
Abstract: Introduction and objective Occupational stress-related factors among working municipal police officers in Poland have not been examined in the literature. The purpose of the paper was to evaluate the impact of selected work-related factors on occupational stress in active municipal police officers in Warsaw by using configural frequency analysis (CFA). Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 578 participants, which accounted for 55.1% of all municipal police officers in Warsaw. The majority of study participants were men (72%) (mean age 43 years old). Two groups of workplace-related stress factors were analysed in the study: physical conditions and organisational working conditions causing stress. The study was carried out using the PAPI method (Paper-and-Pencil Interviewing), based on a proprietary questionnaire developed for the study. CFA searches for templates and patterns in contingency tables. Results Municipal police officers who claimed that stress did not affect health, took advantage of psychological/psychiatric advice less often than those who thought so (1.7% vs 10.1%; χ2 = 20.152, df = 2, P = 0.000). Those who declared that they often experienced stress at work were also more prone to claiming that one or two factors affected their level of stress: physical abuse, contact with infectious materials, working at uncomfortable temperatures or working in a noisy environment. In the opinion of the study population, there were some factors which contributed to the occurrence of stress at work, and these factors included: working in a hurry, lack of necessary resources, devices and materials at work, the need to be available at all times and the unpredictability of the work. The municipal police officers from the study population combined two or three methods to cope with stress, such as watching TV, surfing the Internet and talking with their families. Conclusion Due to the specificity of a municipal police officer's occupation, special attention should be paid to the occupational stress risk factors characteristic for this group of professionals, and measures should be taken to reduce the number of stressors. It is important to organise training events devoted to effective methods of coping with stress. There is need to carry out more in-depth studies of occupational stress among municipal police officers.
TL;DR: The knowledge of nurses on the extension of their professional rights is unsatisfactory and requires urgent complementation, and health policy makers should consider an extensive information campaign, especially in the group of nurses with advanced practice who will have prescribing competences.
Abstract: In Poland, since 1 January 2016 nurses who graduated from the master studies or hold a title of a specialist may ordain and prescribe specific medicines ("independent nurse prescribing" - INP). Nurses, who completed bachelor studies or hold a title of a specialist are allowed to prescribe drugs to continue the patient's treatment as ordered by a physician ("supplementary nurse prescribing" - SNP). The aim of this paper was to analyze the knowledge and attitudes of the Polish nurse specialists to their new professional rights in the independent ordaining of some drugs and drug prescribing. Participants were 902 women and 26 men. The age average was 42.4 (min. 26, max. 65, SD = 7.56, median: 43, mode: 40). 300 respondents - secondary medical education, 325 - the bachelor degree, 277 - the master degree. Own, validated questionnaire. Attitudes with answers based on the Likert scale (1-5) assessed by the nonparametric ANOVA Kruskal-Wallis test with the post-hoc analysis. The same statistical model was used in the evaluation of potential differences for the total scale of knowledge and attitudes.On average less than half of answers about the knowledge were correct (average of difficulty index was 39%). Nurses believe that the introduction of nurse prescribing will increase the nurse's control of the therapeutic process (mean: 3.22/5). No significant differences between the attitudes of respondents with different education level (p = 0.206; H = 3.160). 55% of nurses supports the introduction of INP. Respondents with the master education significantly more frequently support INP than those with secondary education (p = 0.001; z = 3.685). The knowledge of nurses on the extension of their professional rights is unsatisfactory and requires urgent complementation. The health policy makers should consider an extensive information campaign, especially in the group of nurses with advanced practice who will have prescribing competences. Nurses' attitudes to nurse prescribing are generally positive. Concerns expressed are the same as in the opinions of nurses from countries where the professional rights underwent extension earlier.
01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: The learning to teach in higher education is universally compatible with any devices to read, so you can get the most less latency time to download any of the authors' books like this one.
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TL;DR: This book not only helps you read a paper but tries to make you a better paper writer as well and fulfils its advertised aim of being a compressed introduction to the usefulness and potential applications of evidence-based medicine in the clinical setting.
Abstract: Do you need to read published papers? Or are you a scientific paper non-reader or recluse? This book (very thoughtfully) starts off by asking whether you need to read this book—how many textbooks actually ask you whether you need to use/read/buy it? The need for such a book is certainly there, as this excellent little book is intended to help existing readers read, and actually interpret, medical papers better. Current non-readers and scientific recluses may even be encouraged to open medical journals for once! The book provides an excellent practical and pragmatic approach to critical analysis of much of the uninspiring and unread published literature (which often makes you wonder how it got into print in the first place!). There is a systematic discussion on evidence-based medicine and a thoughtful practical section on how to search the medical literature. Despite the age of the Internet and computerised databases, even the most experienced Medline surfer often only manages to find approximately a third of the published material on a particular subject—handy tips are provided to improve searches, to increase one’s gain and to reduce eye strain or repetitive strain injury from a long, tiring session at the Medline computer terminal. The book describes the various sections of a published paper, including appraisal of the nature of the study and statistics for the non-statistician. It then discusses what you would hope to gain from reading a particular paper, including papers that report drug trials, diagnostic screening tests, systematic reviews and guidelines. It also has information on economic analyses and qualitative research. Finally, it gives some examples of how to implement evidence-based findings. Since much of clinical medicine is still not evidence-based, perhaps this goes some way to rectify this appalling state of affairs. I also found the Appendix with a checklist for finding, appraising and implementing evidence fairly helpful. Readers of this excellent book who are like me — struggling to understand much of the published literature and also to produce an intelligible published paper every so often—this book not only helps you read a paper but tries to make you a better paper writer as well. Perhaps my understanding of evidence-based medicine will improve after reading this book, and make me a better teacher and researcher. Perhaps it will make me reject more of the papers submitted to the journal I help edit! At the cost of £14.95, this book is an absolute bargain and it fulfils its advertised aim of being a compressed introduction to the usefulness and potential applications of evidence-based medicine in the clinical setting. I recommend it wholeheartedly as an obligatory read.
TL;DR: It is interesting that the regional variation in "all cause" mortality is rather wider for the age groups 15-64 than for 65 and over, but this finding is only briefly commented on.
Abstract: Longitudinal Study, a study of the role of birthweight in areal variations in infant mortality, and increased attention to the mortality of migrants, and variations according to place of birth. The examination ofmortality from selected causes back to 1921 shows how long some of the variations between areas have persisted. It is perhaps a pity that the authors have not paid more attention to the influence of age in variation between areas. The use of the SMR as a summary measure implies that the ratio of death rates in two populations is constant over age strata, or at least not sufficiently variable as to make the SMR misleading. It is interesting that the regional variation in \"all cause\" mortality is rather wider for the age groups 15-64 than for 65 and over, but this finding is only briefly commented on. Local authority areas were used as the main units of analysis, although it was recognised that they are internally heterogeneous with regard to their social, economic, and environmental characteristics. Such heterogeneity inevitably limits investigators' ability to explain the variations in mortality that are observed. The suggestion that future volumes may make more use of smaller areas such as wards is therefore welcome. Such minor criticisms do not detract seriously from the value ofthis volume, which will be of interest to epidemiologists, public health specialists, and anyone interested in geographical variations in health.
01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: In this article, the authors describe pharmacy education in 3 Middle East countries: Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, and describe teaching methods in all three countries combining traditional didactic lecturing and problem-based learning.
Abstract: The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs. In this report we describe pharmacy education in 3 Middle East countries: Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia. All 3 countries offer bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) degrees. In addition, 2 universities in Jordan and 1 in Saudi Arabia offer PharmD degree programs. The teaching methods in all 3 countries combine traditional didactic lecturing and problem-based learning. Faculties of pharmacy in all 3 countries are well staffed and offer competitive remuneration. All 3 countries have a policy of providing scholarships to local students for postgraduate training abroad. The majority of students in Jordan and Kuwait are female, while the ratio of male to female students in Saudi Arabia is even. Students’ attitudes towards learning are generally positive in all 3 countries. In Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, most pharmacy graduates work in the public sector, while in Jordan, the majority work in the private sector.