Author

# Alex M. Andrew

Bio: Alex M. Andrew is an academic researcher from University of Reading. The author has contributed to research in topics: Cybernetics & The Internet. The author has an hindex of 34, co-authored 227 publications receiving 12699 citations.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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3,822 citations

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TL;DR: Introduction to statistical pattern recognition and nonlinear discriminant analysis - statistical methods.

Abstract: Introduction to statistical pattern recognition * Estimation * Density estimation * Linear discriminant analysis * Nonlinear discriminant analysis - neural networks * Nonlinear discriminant analysis - statistical methods * Classification trees * Feature selection and extraction * Clustering * Additional topics * Measures of dissimilarity * Parameter estimation * Linear algebra * Data * Probability theory.

2,082 citations

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TL;DR: When I started out as a newly hatched PhD student, one of the first articles I read and understood was Ray Reiter’s classic article on default logic, and I became fascinated by both default logic and, more generally, non-monotonic logics.

Abstract: When I started out as a newly hatched PhD student, back in the day, one of the first articles I read and understood (or at least thought that I understood) was Ray Reiter’s classic article on default logic (Reiter, 1980).This was some years after the famous ‘non-monotonic logic’ issue of Artificial Intelligence in which that article appeared, but default logic was still one of the leading approaches, a tribute to the simplicity and power of the theory. As a result of reading the article, I became fascinated by both default logic and, more generally, non-monotonic logics. However, despite my fascination, these approaches never seemed terribly useful for the kinds of problem that I was supposed to be studying—problems like those in medical decision making—and so I eventually lost interest. In fact non-monotonic logics seemed to me, and to many people at the time I think, not to be terribly useful for anything. They were interesting, and clearly relevant to the long-term goals of Artificial Intelligence as a discipline, but not of any immediate practical importance. This verdict, delivered at the end of the 1980s, continued, I think, to be true for the next few years while researchers working in non-monotonic logics studied problems that to outsiders seemed to be ever more obscure. However, by the end of the 1990s, it was becoming clear, even to folk as short-sighted as I, that non-monotonic logics were getting to the point at which they could be used to solve practical problems. Knowledge in action shows quite how far these techniques have come. The reason that non-monotonic logics were invented was, of course, in order to use logic to reason about the world. Our knowledge of the world is typically incomplete, and so, in order to reason about it, one has to make assumptions about things one does not know. This, in turn, requires mechanisms for both making assumptions and then retracting them if and when they turn out not to be true. Non-monotonic logics are intended to handle this kind of assumption making and retracting, providing a mechanism that has the clean semantics of logic, but which has a non-monotonic set of conclusions. Much of the early work on non-monotonic logics was concerned with theoretical reasoning, that is reasoning about the beliefs of an agent—what the agent believes to be true. Theoretical reasoning is the domain of all those famous examples like ‘Typically birds fly. Tweety is a bird, so does Tweety fly?’, and the fact that so much of non-monotonic reasoning seemed to focus on theoretical reasoning was why I lost interest in it. I became much more concerned with practical reasoning—that is reasoning about what an agent should do—and non-monotonic reasoning seemed to me to have nothing interesting to say about practical reasoning. Of course I was wrong. When one tries to formulate any kind of description of the world as the basis for planning, one immediately runs into applications of non-monotonic logics, for example in keeping track of the state of a changing world. It is this use of non-monotonic logic that is at the heart of Knowledge in action. Building on the McCarthy’s situation calculus, Knowledge in action constructs a theory of action that encompasses a very large part of what an agent requires to reason about the world. As Reiter says in the final chapter,

899 citations

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TL;DR: Fiji is a distribution of the popular open-source software ImageJ focused on biological-image analysis that facilitates the transformation of new algorithms into ImageJ plugins that can be shared with end users through an integrated update system.

Abstract: Fiji is a distribution of the popular open-source software ImageJ focused on biological-image analysis. Fiji uses modern software engineering practices to combine powerful software libraries with a broad range of scripting languages to enable rapid prototyping of image-processing algorithms. Fiji facilitates the transformation of new algorithms into ImageJ plugins that can be shared with end users through an integrated update system. We propose Fiji as a platform for productive collaboration between computer science and biology research communities.

43,540 citations

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Mitsubishi

^{1}TL;DR: A machine learning approach for visual object detection which is capable of processing images extremely rapidly and achieving high detection rates and the introduction of a new image representation called the "integral image" which allows the features used by the detector to be computed very quickly.

Abstract: This paper describes a machine learning approach for visual object detection which is capable of processing images extremely rapidly and achieving high detection rates. This work is distinguished by three key contributions. The first is the introduction of a new image representation called the "integral image" which allows the features used by our detector to be computed very quickly. The second is a learning algorithm, based on AdaBoost, which selects a small number of critical visual features from a larger set and yields extremely efficient classifiers. The third contribution is a method for combining increasingly more complex classifiers in a "cascade" which allows background regions of the image to be quickly discarded while spending more computation on promising object-like regions. The cascade can be viewed as an object specific focus-of-attention mechanism which unlike previous approaches provides statistical guarantees that discarded regions are unlikely to contain the object of interest. In the domain of face detection the system yields detection rates comparable to the best previous systems. Used in real-time applications, the detector runs at 15 frames per second without resorting to image differencing or skin color detection.

18,620 citations

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TL;DR: A set of automated procedures for obtaining accurate reconstructions of the cortical surface are described, which have been applied to data from more than 100 subjects, requiring little or no manual intervention.

9,599 citations

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TL;DR: This work presents the first deep learning model to successfully learn control policies directly from high-dimensional sensory input using reinforcement learning, which outperforms all previous approaches on six of the games and surpasses a human expert on three of them.

Abstract: We present the first deep learning model to successfully learn control
policies directly from high-dimensional sensory input using reinforcement
learning. The model is a convolutional neural network, trained with a variant
of Q-learning, whose input is raw pixels and whose output is a value function
estimating future rewards. We apply our method to seven Atari 2600 games from
the Arcade Learning Environment, with no adjustment of the architecture or
learning algorithm. We find that it outperforms all previous approaches on six
of the games and surpasses a human expert on three of them.

8,757 citations

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06 Oct 2003

TL;DR: A fun and exciting textbook on the mathematics underpinning the most dynamic areas of modern science and engineering.

Abstract: Fun and exciting textbook on the mathematics underpinning the most dynamic areas of modern science and engineering.

8,091 citations