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Alexander E. Gorbalenya

Bio: Alexander E. Gorbalenya is a academic researcher at Moscow State University who has co-authored 198 publication(s) receiving 30931 citation(s). The author has an hindex of 85. Previous affiliations of Alexander E. Gorbalenya include Business International Corporation & Academy of Medical Sciences, United Kingdom. The author has done significant research in the topic(s): RNA & RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. more


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41564-020-0695-Z
Abstract: The present outbreak of a coronavirus-associated acute respiratory disease called coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is the third documented spillover of an animal coronavirus to humans in only two decades that has resulted in a major epidemic. The Coronaviridae Study Group (CSG) of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, which is responsible for developing the classification of viruses and taxon nomenclature of the family Coronaviridae, has assessed the placement of the human pathogen, tentatively named 2019-nCoV, within the Coronaviridae. Based on phylogeny, taxonomy and established practice, the CSG recognizes this virus as forming a sister clade to the prototype human and bat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (SARS-CoVs) of the species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus, and designates it as SARS-CoV-2. In order to facilitate communication, the CSG proposes to use the following naming convention for individual isolates: SARS-CoV-2/host/location/isolate/date. While the full spectrum of clinical manifestations associated with SARS-CoV-2 infections in humans remains to be determined, the independent zoonotic transmission of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 highlights the need for studying viruses at the species level to complement research focused on individual pathogenic viruses of immediate significance. This will improve our understanding of virus–host interactions in an ever-changing environment and enhance our preparedness for future outbreaks. more

Topics: Coronavirus (64%), Nidovirales (50%)

3,790 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0959-440X(05)80116-2
Abstract: DNA and RNA helicases are ubiquitous enzymes that mediate the nucleoside-triphosphate-dependent unwinding of nucleic acid duplexes, a necessary step in genome replication, expression, recombination and repair. All proteins with demonstrated helicase activity contain the purine nucleoside-triphosphate-binding pattern; subsets of helicases possess additional conserved motifs. Three large superfamilies and two smaller families of helicases are described. Experimental results support the value of the conserved motifs for prediction of structure and function of the helicases. Some of these motifs can be used as reliable identifiers of the respective groups of helicases in database searches. The two largest helicase superfamilies share similar patterns of seven conserved sequence motifs, some of which are separated by long poorly conserved spacers. Helicase motifs appear to be organized in a core domain which provides the catalytic function, whereas optional inserts and amino- and carboxy-terminal sequences may comprise distinct domains with diverse accessory roles. more

Topics: Helicase (71%), RNA Helicase A (65%), DEAD box (61%) more

1,086 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0022-2836(03)00865-9
Abstract: The genome organization and expression strategy of the newly identified severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) were predicted using recently published genome sequences. Fourteen putative open reading frames were identified, 12 of which were predicted to be expressed from a nested set of eight subgenomic mRNAs. The synthesis of these mRNAs in SARS-CoV-infected cells was confirmed experimentally. The 4382- and 7073 amino acid residue SARS-CoV replicase polyproteins are predicted to be cleaved into 16 subunits by two viral proteinases (bringing the total number of SARS-CoV proteins to 28). A phylogenetic analysis of the replicase gene, using a distantly related torovirus as an outgroup, demonstrated that, despite a number of unique features, SARS-CoV is most closely related to group 2 coronaviruses. Distant homologs of cellular RNA processing enzymes were identified in group 2 coronaviruses, with four of them being conserved in SARS-CoV. These newly recognized viral enzymes place the mechanism of coronavirus RNA synthesis in a completely new perspective. Furthermore, together with previously described viral enzymes, they will be important targets for the design of antiviral strategies aimed at controlling the further spread of SARS-CoV. more

Topics: Coronavirus (66%), Gene (53%), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (52%) more

1,045 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S00705-015-2425-Z
Abstract: Changes to virus taxonomy approved and ratified by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses in February 2015 are listed. more

Topics: Virus classification (56%)

959 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/NAR/17.12.4713
Abstract: In the course of systematic analysis of protein sequences containing the purine NTP-binding motif, a new superfamily was delineated which included 25 established or putative helicases of Escherichia coli, yeast, insects, mammals, pox- and herpesviruses, a yeast mitochondrial plasmid and three groups of positive strand RNA viruses. These proteins contained 7 distinct highly conserved segments two of which corresponded to the "A" and "B" sites of the NTP-binding motif. Typical of the new superfamily was an abridged consensus for the "A" site, GxGKS/T, instead of the classical G/AxxxxGKS/T. Secondary structure predictions indicated that each of the conserved segments might constitute a separate structural unit centering at a beta-turn. All previously characterized mutations impairing the function of the yeast helicase RAD3 in DNA repair mapped to one of the conserved segments. A degree of similarity was revealed between the consensus pattern of conserved amino acid residues derived for the new superfamily and that of another recently described protein superfamily including a different set of prokaryotic, eukaryotic and viral (putative) helicases. more

Topics: Helicase (62%), Conserved sequence (59%), Protein superfamily (56%) more

944 Citations

Cited by

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5
Chaolin Huang1, Yeming Wang2, Xingwang Li3, Lili Ren4  +25 moreInstitutions (8)
24 Jan 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel betacoronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment and clinical outcomes of these patients. All patients with suspected 2019-nCoV were admitted to a designated hospital in Wuhan. We prospectively collected and analysed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by real-time RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Data were obtained with standardised data collection forms shared by the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium from electronic medical records. Researchers also directly communicated with patients or their families to ascertain epidemiological and symptom data. Outcomes were also compared between patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those who had not. more

26,390 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3
Fei Zhou1, Ting Yu, Ronghui Du, Guohui Fan2  +16 moreInstitutions (5)
28 Mar 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background Since December, 2019, Wuhan, China, has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but risk factors for mortality and a detailed clinical course of illness, including viral shedding, have not been well described. Methods In this retrospective, multicentre cohort study, we included all adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Jinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (Wuhan, China) who had been discharged or had died by Jan 31, 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data, including serial samples for viral RNA detection, were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. Findings 191 patients (135 from Jinyintan Hospital and 56 from Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital) were included in this study, of whom 137 were discharged and 54 died in hospital. 91 (48%) patients had a comorbidity, with hypertension being the most common (58 [30%] patients), followed by diabetes (36 [19%] patients) and coronary heart disease (15 [8%] patients). Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with older age (odds ratio 1·10, 95% CI 1·03–1·17, per year increase; p=0·0043), higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (5·65, 2·61–12·23; p Interpretation The potential risk factors of older age, high SOFA score, and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage. Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future. Funding Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences; National Science Grant for Distinguished Young Scholars; National Key Research and Development Program of China; The Beijing Science and Technology Project; and Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development. more

Topics: Cohort study (56%), Retrospective cohort study (56%), Odds ratio (53%) more

15,279 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.5940/JCRSJ.12.1
10 Mar 1970-

8,159 Citations

Open access
01 Aug 2000-
Abstract: BIOE 402. Medical Technology Assessment. 2 or 3 hours. Bioentrepreneur course. Assessment of medical technology in the context of commercialization. Objectives, competition, market share, funding, pricing, manufacturing, growth, and intellectual property; many issues unique to biomedical products. Course Information: 2 undergraduate hours. 3 graduate hours. Prerequisite(s): Junior standing or above and consent of the instructor. more

4,833 Citations


Author's H-index: 85

No. of papers from the Author in previous years

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Author's top 5 most impactful journals

Journal of Virology

36 papers, 4.4K citations

FEBS Letters

17 papers, 2K citations

Journal of General Virology

14 papers, 2.7K citations


12 papers, 856 citations

Archives of Virology

11 papers, 2.4K citations

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