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Author

Alexander Shenderov

Other affiliations: Duke University
Bio: Alexander Shenderov is an academic researcher from Research Triangle Park. The author has contributed to research in topics: Electrowetting & Microfluidics. The author has an hindex of 14, co-authored 18 publications receiving 3250 citations. Previous affiliations of Alexander Shenderov include Duke University.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a microactuator for rapid manipulation of discrete microdroplets is presented, which is accomplished by direct electrical control of the surface tension through two sets of opposing planar electrodes fabricated on glass.
Abstract: A microactuator for rapid manipulation of discrete microdroplets is presented. Microactuation is accomplished by direct electrical control of the surface tension through two sets of opposing planar electrodes fabricated on glass. A prototype device consisting of a linear array of seven electrodes at 1.5 mm pitch was fabricated and tested. Droplets (0.7–1.0 μl) of 100 mM KCl solution were successfully transferred between adjacent electrodes at voltages of 40–80 V. Repeatable transport of droplets at electrode switching rates of up to 20 Hz and average velocities of 30 mm/s have been demonstrated. This speed represents a nearly 100-fold increase over previously demonstrated electrical methods for the transport of droplets on solid surfaces.

1,471 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an alternative approach to microfluidics based upon the micromanipulation of discrete droplets of aqueous electrolyte by electrowetting is reported.
Abstract: The serviceability of microfluidics-based instrumentation including ‘lab-on-a-chip’ systems critically depends on control of fluid motion. We are reporting here an alternative approach to microfluidics based upon the micromanipulation of discrete droplets of aqueous electrolyte by electrowetting. Using a simple open structure, consisting of two sets of opposing planar electrodes fabricated on glass substrates, positional and formational control of microdroplets ranging in size from several nanoliters to several microliters has been demonstrated at voltages between 15–100 V. Since there are no permanent channels or structures between the plates, the system is highly flexible and reconfigurable. Droplet transport is rapid and efficient with average velocities exceeding 10 cm s−1 having been observed. The dependence of the velocity on voltage is roughly independent of the droplet size within certain limits, thus the smallest droplets studied (∼3 nl) could be transported over 1000 times their length per second. Formation, mixing, and splitting of microdroplets was also demonstrated using the same microactuator structures. Thus, electrowetting provides a means to achieve high levels of functional integration and flexibility for microfluidic systems.

1,078 citations

Patent
24 Mar 2008
TL;DR: In this paper, a method of detecting SNPs was proposed, involving DNA, extension oligos, and suspension array beads, and detecting SNP signals and barcode signals from the amplified DNA.
Abstract: Various methods, such as a method of detecting SNPs, involving (a) introducing onto a droplet actuator a solution comprising genomic DNA, extension oligos and suspension array beads; (b) dispensing on the droplet actuator one bead per droplet; (c) cleaving DNA from the bead in each droplet; (d) amplifying the cleaved DNA; (e) detecting SNP signals and barcode signals from the amplified DNA.

109 citations

Patent
10 May 2006
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe methods and devices for conducting chemical or biochemical reactions that require multiple reaction temperatures on a microfluidics apparatus, which involve moving one or more reaction droplets or reaction volumes through various reaction zones having different temperatures.
Abstract: Methods and devices for conducting chemical or biochemical reactions that require multiple reaction temperatures are described. The methods involve moving one or more reaction droplets or reaction volumes through various reaction zones having different temperatures on a microfluidics apparatus. The devices comprise a microfluidics apparatus comprising appropriate actuators capable of moving reaction droplets or reaction volumes through the various reaction zones.

106 citations

Patent
04 May 2009
TL;DR: In this paper, a droplet actuators and cassettes including reagent storage capabilities, as well as methods of making and using the actuators, and continuous flow channel elements and techniques for using electrodes to manipulate droplets in flowing streams.
Abstract: The invention provides droplet actuators and droplet actuator cassettes including reagent storage capabilities, as well as methods of making and using the droplet actuators and cassettes. The invention also provides continuous flow channel elements and techniques for using electrodes to manipulate droplets in flowing streams. The invention also discloses methods of separating compounds on a droplet actuator. Various other aspects of the invention are also disclosed.

73 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of the physics of small volumes (nanoliters) of fluids is presented, as parametrized by a series of dimensionless numbers expressing the relative importance of various physical phenomena as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Microfabricated integrated circuits revolutionized computation by vastly reducing the space, labor, and time required for calculations. Microfluidic systems hold similar promise for the large-scale automation of chemistry and biology, suggesting the possibility of numerous experiments performed rapidly and in parallel, while consuming little reagent. While it is too early to tell whether such a vision will be realized, significant progress has been achieved, and various applications of significant scientific and practical interest have been developed. Here a review of the physics of small volumes (nanoliters) of fluids is presented, as parametrized by a series of dimensionless numbers expressing the relative importance of various physical phenomena. Specifically, this review explores the Reynolds number Re, addressing inertial effects; the Peclet number Pe, which concerns convective and diffusive transport; the capillary number Ca expressing the importance of interfacial tension; the Deborah, Weissenberg, and elasticity numbers De, Wi, and El, describing elastic effects due to deformable microstructural elements like polymers; the Grashof and Rayleigh numbers Gr and Ra, describing density-driven flows; and the Knudsen number, describing the importance of noncontinuum molecular effects. Furthermore, the long-range nature of viscous flows and the small device dimensions inherent in microfluidics mean that the influence of boundaries is typically significant. A variety of strategies have been developed to manipulate fluids by exploiting boundary effects; among these are electrokinetic effects, acoustic streaming, and fluid-structure interactions. The goal is to describe the physics behind the rich variety of fluid phenomena occurring on the nanoliter scale using simple scaling arguments, with the hopes of developing an intuitive sense for this occasionally counterintuitive world.

4,044 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of flows in microdevices with focus on electrokinetics, mixing and dispersion, and multiphase flows is provided, highlighting topics important for the description of the fluid dynamics: driving forces, geometry, and the chemical characteristics of surfaces.
Abstract: Microfluidic devices for manipulating fluids are widespread and finding uses in many scientific and industrial contexts. Their design often requires unusual geometries and the interplay of multiple physical effects such as pressure gradients, electrokinetics, and capillarity. These circumstances lead to interesting variants of well-studied fluid dynamical problems and some new fluid responses. We provide an overview of flows in microdevices with focus on electrokinetics, mixing and dispersion, and multiphase flows. We highlight topics important for the description of the fluid dynamics: driving forces, geometry, and the chemical characteristics of surfaces.

3,307 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors compare the various approaches used to derive the basic electrowetting equation, which has been shown to be very reliable as long as the applied voltage is not too high.
Abstract: Electrowetting has become one of the most widely used tools for manipulating tiny amounts of liquids on surfaces. Applications range from 'lab-on-a-chip' devices to adjustable lenses and new kinds of electronic displays. In the present article, we review the recent progress in this rapidly growing field including both fundamental and applied aspects. We compare the various approaches used to derive the basic electrowetting equation, which has been shown to be very reliable as long as the applied voltage is not too high. We discuss in detail the origin of the electrostatic forces that induce both contact angle reduction and the motion of entire droplets. We examine the limitations of the electrowetting equation and present a variety of recent extensions to the theory that account for distortions of the liquid surface due to local electric fields, for the finite penetration depth of electric fields into the liquid, as well as for finite conductivity effects in the presence of AC voltage. The most prominent failure of the electrowetting equation, namely the saturation of the contact angle at high voltage, is discussed in a separate section. Recent work in this direction indicates that a variety of distinct physical effects?rather than a unique one?are responsible for the saturation phenomenon, depending on experimental details. In the presence of suitable electrode patterns or topographic structures on the substrate surface, variations of the contact angle can give rise not only to continuous changes of the droplet shape, but also to discontinuous morphological transitions between distinct liquid morphologies. The dynamics of electrowetting are discussed briefly. Finally, we give an overview of recent work aimed at commercial applications, in particular in the fields of adjustable lenses, display technology, fibre optics, and biotechnology-related microfluidic devices.

1,962 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The focus of this review is microscale phenomena and the use of the physics of the scale to create devices and systems that provide functionality useful to the life sciences.
Abstract: ■ Abstract Fluid flow at the microscale exhibits unique phenomena that can be leveraged to fabricate devices and components capable of performing functions useful for biological studies. The physics of importance to microfluidics are reviewed. Common methods of fabricating microfluidic devices and systems are described. Components, including valves, mixers, and pumps, capable of controlling fluid flow by utilizing the physics of the microscale are presented. Techniques for sensing flow characteristics are described and examples of devices and systems that perform bioanalysis are presented. The focus of this review is microscale phenomena and the use of the physics of the scale to create devices and systems that provide functionality useful to the life sciences.

1,721 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Fundamental and applied research in chemistry and biology benefits from opportunities provided by droplet-based microfluidic systems, which enable the miniaturization of reactions by compartmentalizing reactions in droplets of femoliter to microliter volumes.
Abstract: Fundamental and applied research in chemistry and biology benefits from opportunities provided by droplet-based microfluidic systems. These systems enable the miniaturization of reactions by compartmentalizing reactions in droplets of femoliter to microliter volumes. Compartmentalization in droplets provides rapid mixing of reagents, control of the timing of reactions on timescales from milliseconds to months, control of interfacial properties, and the ability to synthesize and transport solid reagents and products. Droplet-based microfluidics can help to enhance and accelerate chemical and biochemical screening, protein crystallization, enzymatic kinetics, and assays. Moreover, the control provided by droplets in microfluidic devices can lead to new scientific methods and insights.

1,702 citations