••12 Dec 2017
TL;DR: In this article, the authors menjelaskan tentang pengaruh dari perhatian dunia internasional, diwakili oleh Amerika Serikat, terhadap kebijakan Indonesia merespon terorisme di era reformasi.
Abstract: Artikel ini menjelaskan tentang pengaruh dari perhatian dunia internasional – diwakili oleh Amerika Serikat – terhadap kebijakan Indonesia merespon terorisme di era reformasi. Dua aspek utama dalam kontra-terorisme menjadi pembatas dari perhatian internasional ini, yaitu aspek efektivitas kontra-terorisme dan aspek kepatuhan kepada nilai-nilai Hak Asasi Manusia (HAM). Karena kebutuhannya untuk melakukan sekuritisasi terhadap isu terorisme terjadi pada era demokrasi, pemerintah Indonesia harus mengadopsi nilai-nilai HAM dalam meyakini public dan dunia internasional. Tetapi penggunaan nilai HAM tidak dilakukan untuk memastikan terjaganya pemenuhan HAM, melainkan untuk menjustifikasikan tindakan-tindakan eksepsional dalam kontra-terorisme. Selanjutnya kerjasama dengan Amerika Serikat memfasilitasi terjadinya penguatan kapabilitas koersif kontra-terorisme dalam wujud lembaga criminal justice system yang berkapasitas khusus dalam bidang ini. Ketiadaan tekanan untuk secara serius mempertimbangkan perlindungan HAM dalam kontra-terorisme merupakan salah satu contributor dari rendahnya manifestasi institusional dari kontra-terorisme Indonesia yang ditandai dengan ketiadaan dokumen formal yang secara eksplisit mengartikulasikan strategi (tujuan, ukuran pencapaian dan instrument) kontra-terorisme sehingga kebijakan kontra-terorisme Indonesia pun absen akan evaluasi. Sementara itu bantuan langsung kepada kepolisian dan militer Indonesia juga membuat pemerintah – eksekutif maupun legislative – memberikan otoritas eksepsional kepada aparat keamanan tanpa mekanisme akuntabilitas dalam pelaksanaannya.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the inter-regional security cooperation between ASEAN and the EU with a specific focus on counterterrorism and found that CT cooperation is about facilitating a more comprehensive security governance cooperation where European standards and experience are transferred to Southeast Asia for purposes of regional security and diplomatic relations.
Abstract: This research examines the inter-regional security cooperation between ASEAN and the EU with a specific focus on counterterrorism. The research methods are based on a comparison of regional counterterrorism governance between the two regions and a close reading of Plan of Actions for the enhancement of ASEAN-EU relations documents from 2007 to 2018. The results show that CT cooperation is about facilitating a more comprehensive security governance cooperation where European standards and experience are transferred to Southeast Asia for purposes of regional security and diplomatic relations. In addition, this research also shows that EU-ASEAN CT cooperation has not been geared specifically to combat radicalism, or as part of a Counter Violent Extremism program; rather, the inter-regional cooperation has mainly focused on building a common normative framework in responding to terrorism within the corridor of democracy and preempting the terrorist networks from exploiting connectivity networks. Finally, implementation of security and political cooperation between the EU and ASEAN tend to rely on the existing extra-regional dialogue fora within ASEAN as well as direct engagement between the EU and third parties comprising each of the ASEAN states.
••28 Sep 2017
TL;DR: In this article, the authors argue that ASEAN-China non-traditional security cooperation emphasized more towards the strengthening of state's capacity to deal with non-state actors' transnational criminal activities, either for profit-seeking or subversive purposes.
Abstract: Both ASEAN and China used the concept of Non-Traditional Security (NTS) in order to pursue security diplomacy in the Asia Pacific. For ASEAN, NTS is an area of security cooperation that allows it to drive the agenda of security architectures involving extra-regional powers such as the ASEAN Defense Ministerial Meeting Plus (ADMM+) and ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF). For China, NTS policy agenda allows it to gain acceptance among ASEAN member-states and an active role in the security agenda of ASEAN-led security architectures. The question that this article is pursuing is to what extent has ASEAN-China cooperation on NTS balanced between addressing the humanitarian aspect and the political objectives of security? This question is derived from the conceptual origin of NTS that stands on the importance of both the state and the individuals as the referent subjects of security. This article argues that ASEAN-China NTS cooperation emphasized more towards the strengthening of state’s capacity to deal with non-state actors’ transnational criminal activities, either for profit-seeking or subversive purposes. It is also apparent from evaluating the Memorandum of Understandings and Plans of Action between ASEAN and China that NTS cooperation is one China’s investments to engage a closer cooperation with ASEAN as well as a stronger presence in Southeast Asia’s strategic environment.
TL;DR: The Global Covenant: The Social Democratic Alternative to the Washington Consensus as discussed by the authors is a social democratic alternative to the United States Consensus that advocates the principles of equal moral worth, equal liberty, equal political status of human beings, legitimate political authority on all levels, and a deeper commitment to social justice.
Abstract: Global Covenant: The Social Democratic Alternative to the Washington Consensus. By David Held. New York: Polity, 2004. 216p. $54.95 cloth, $19.95 paper. David Held lays out a detailed design for an “alternative” global order to the one promoted by the United States. He vigorously rejects the approach to the world of George W. Bush and instead offers a social democratic agenda, which has three main parts: economic, political, and legal. For each part, Held provides both the overarching principles that ought to guide us and a considerable list of specific steps that should advance his design. Readers should not stop reading just because the list of values that Held beseeches us to pursue is as impressive as it is lofty: He calls on us to uphold the principles of equal moral worth, equal liberty, equal political status of human beings, legitimate political authority “on all levels,” and a “deeper” commitment to social justice, among other such values. He buttresses his agenda with a list of measures to be undertaken both in the short and in the longer run, most of which deserve careful attention. It is here that ultimately the rubber does not meet the road.
01 Mar 2002
01 Jan 2012
TL;DR: It is argued that NTS has played an increasingly important role in China’s pursuit of greater influence in global governance mechanisms and in leading international efforts to enhance global governance and exploring new models of cooperation.
Abstract: With the emergence of a series of global security incidents, scholars and observers have placed increasing importance on nontraditional security (NTS). Since 2012, Xi Jinping's regime has emphasized NTS issues and cooperation, which begs the question "What is the role of NTS in China's foreign policy, and how is it shaped?" This study analyzes articles that include the term "nontraditional security" ("") in The People's Daily newspaper since its first mention in 2001. Focusing particularly on the period between 2012 and 2019, the study explains China's securitization process and its motivations toward NTS issues. By analyzing case studies of the NTS issues of terrorism, environmental issues, and cybersecurity, and further summarizing the logic in common behind the Chinese government's process of securitizing NTS issues, this paper highlights the correlation between the characteristics of China's NTS and China's major foreign policy initiatives that play an active role in leading international efforts to enhance global governance and exploring new models of cooperation. Based on an analysis of China's emphasis on promotion of NTS and provision of public goods, I argue that NTS has played an increasingly important role in China's pursuit of greater influence in global governance mechanisms.
10 Apr 2021
TL;DR: The researchers concluded that the design of waste handling management is done through planning and actuating, and the application has the potential to support Angkuts based waste handling applications in the human security perspective to be used in a wider area again, not only in the city of Pontianak.
Abstract: Security today is not only defined from a military standpoint, but also human security in which it has relations to social issues, human rights, economic, and environmental. Environmental issues, one of which is on the management of waste handling. A large amount of waste that goes to the place of final processing Pontianak Batu Layang is Hundreds of tonnes per day to make some millennials led by Muhammad Hafiz Waliyyudin initiating Angkuts application to support the city of Pontianak in waste management. This research used a descriptive method for designing a management model, especially waste management planning and actualization of Angkuts towards application-based Smart City from the perspective of human security. Based on these results, the researchers concluded that the design of waste handling management is done through planning and actuating. Planning applications applied technologies based on Angkuts industrial era 4.0 toward achieving smart city. Implementation of an application-based waste handling management Angkuts millennial generation is through participation and government support. As a recommendation, the application has the potential to support Angkuts based waste handling applications in the human security perspective to be used in a wider area again, not only in the city of Pontianak.