Allan D. Kraus
Bio: Allan D. Kraus is an academic researcher from University of Akron. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Heat transfer & Heat transfer coefficient. The author has an hindex of 12, co-authored 24 publication(s) receiving 3299 citation(s).
01 Jan 2003
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors introduce basic concepts of heat transfer, including thermal spreading and contact resistances, and forced convection and external flow. But they do not consider the effect of external flow on internal flow.
Abstract: Preface. Contributors. 1. Basic Concepts (Allan D. Kraus). 2. Thermophysical Properties of Fluids and Materials (R. T Jacobsen, E. W. Lemmon, S. G. Penoncello, Z. Shan, and N. T. Wright). 3. Conduction Heat Transfer (A. Aziz). 4. Thermal Spreading and Contact Resistances (M. M. Yovanovich and E. E. Marotta). 5. Forced Convection: Internal Flows (Adrian Bejan). 6. Forced Convection: External Flows (Yogendra Joshi and Wataru Nakayama). 7. Natural Convection (Yogesh Jaluria). 8. Thermal Radiation (Michael F. Modest). 9. Boiling (John R. Thome). 10. Condensation (M. A. Kedzierski, J. C. Chato, and T. J. Rabas). 11. Heat Exchangers (Allan D. Kraus). 12. Experimental Methods (Jose L. Lage). 13. Heat Transfer in Electronic Equipment (Avram Bar-Cohen, Abhay A. Watwe, and Ravi S. Prasher). 14. Heat Transfer Enhancement (R. M. Manglik). 15. Porous Media (Adrian Bejan). 16. Heat Pipes (Jay M. Ochterbeck). 17. Heat Transfer in Manufacturing and Materials Processing (Richard N. Smith, C. Haris Doumanidis, and Ranga Pitchumani). 18. Microscale Heat Transfer (Andrew N. Smith and Pamela M. Norris). 19. Direct Contact Heat Transfer (Robert F. Boehm). Author Index. Subject Index. About the CD-ROM.
•01 Jan 1972
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an algorithm for Finned Array Assembly, which is based on linear transformations with simplified constraints and convection coefficients with real constraints, and they show that it achieves the optimum design of Radiating and Convecting-Radiating Fins.
Abstract: Preface. Convection with Simplified Constraints. Convection with Real Constraints. Convective Optimizations. Convection Coefficients. Linear Transformations. Elements of Linear Transformations. Algorithms for Finned Array Assembly. Advanced Array Methods and Array Optimization. Finned Passages. Compact Heat Exchangers. Longitudinal Fin Double-Pipe Exchangers. Transverse High-Fin Exchangers. Fins with Radiation. Optimum Design of Radiating and Convecting-Radiating Fins. Multidimensional Heat Transfer in Fins and Fin Assemblies. Transient Heat Transfer in Extended Surfaces. Periodic Heat Flow in Fins. Boiling From Finned Surfaces. Condensation on Finned Surfaces. Augmentation and Additional Studies. Appendix A: Gamma and Bessel Functions. Appendix B: Matrices and Determinants. References. Author Index. Subject Index.
01 Jan 1983
TL;DR: In this article, thermal analysis and control of electronic equipment, thermal analysis of electronic devices and their control, thermal control and control in the field of software engineering, is discussed. ǫ
Abstract: Thermal analysis and control of electronic equipment , Thermal analysis and control of electronic equipment , مرکز فناوری اطلاعات و اطلاع رسانی کشاورزی
•01 Jul 1988
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a comprehensive bibliograhy of project managers and lead engineers, packaging engineers and mechanical analysts, consultants, and academic, industrial, and government laboratory researchers.
Abstract: This volume opens with a sweeping overview of the physical design of electronic systems-methodology, technology, and future challenges-thermally induced failures in electronic systems. Subsequent chapters examine the causes for thermally induced failures of electronic components and the techniques used to analyze and prevent such failures. It gives a comprehensive bibliograhy of project managers and lead engineers, packaging engineers and mechanical analysts, consultants, and academic, industrial, and government laboratory researchers.
01 Jan 1995
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present an algorithm for Finned array assembly, which is based on linear transformations with singular fins and spines and single elements, and a general array method with reciprocity and node analysis.
Abstract: Linear Transformations. Elements of the Linear Transformations. Singular Fins and Spines and Single Elements. Algorithms for Finned Array Assembly. Examples of Finned Array Analysis. Reciprocity and Node Analysis. A General Array Method. Convective Optimizations. Heat Transfer-Parallel Plate Heat Sinks. References. Appendices. Indexes.
20 Apr 2007-Advanced Materials
TL;DR: In this article, the ability to achieve a simultaneous increase in the power factor and a decrease in the thermal conductivity of the same nanocomposite sample and for transport in the same direction is discussed.
Abstract: Many of the recent advances in enhancing the thermoelectric figure of merit are linked to nanoscale phenomena found both in bulk samples containing nanoscale constituents and in nanoscale samples themselves. Prior theoretical and experimental proof-of-principle studies on quantum-well superlattice and quantum-wire samples have now evolved into studies on bulk samples containing nanostructured constituents prepared by chemical or physical approaches. In this Review, nanostructural composites are shown to exhibit nanostructures and properties that show promise for thermoelectric applications, thus bringing together low-dimensional and bulk materials for thermoelectric applications. Particular emphasis is given in this Review to the ability to achieve 1) a simultaneous increase in the power factor and a decrease in the thermal conductivity in the same nanocomposite sample and for transport in the same direction and 2) lower values of the thermal conductivity in these nanocomposites as compared to alloy samples of the same chemical composition. The outlook for future research directions for nanocomposite thermoelectric materials is also discussed.
27 Sep 2001
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a detailed overview of the history of the field of flow simulation for MEMS and discuss the current state-of-the-art in this field.
Abstract: Part I: Background and Fundamentals Introduction, Mohamed Gad-el-Hak, University of Notre Dame Scaling of Micromechanical Devices, William Trimmer, Standard MEMS, Inc., and Robert H. Stroud, Aerospace Corporation Mechanical Properties of MEMS Materials, William N. Sharpe, Jr., Johns Hopkins University Flow Physics, Mohamed Gad-el-Hak, University of Notre Dame Integrated Simulation for MEMS: Coupling Flow-Structure-Thermal-Electrical Domains, Robert M. Kirby and George Em Karniadakis, Brown University, and Oleg Mikulchenko and Kartikeya Mayaram, Oregon State University Liquid Flows in Microchannels, Kendra V. Sharp and Ronald J. Adrian, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Juan G. Santiago and Joshua I. Molho, Stanford University Burnett Simulations of Flows in Microdevices, Ramesh K. Agarwal and Keon-Young Yun, Wichita State University Molecular-Based Microfluidic Simulation Models, Ali Beskok, Texas A&M University Lubrication in MEMS, Kenneth S. Breuer, Brown University Physics of Thin Liquid Films, Alexander Oron, Technion, Israel Bubble/Drop Transport in Microchannels, Hsueh-Chia Chang, University of Notre Dame Fundamentals of Control Theory, Bill Goodwine, University of Notre Dame Model-Based Flow Control for Distributed Architectures, Thomas R. Bewley, University of California, San Diego Soft Computing in Control, Mihir Sen and Bill Goodwine, University of Notre Dame Part II: Design and Fabrication Materials for Microelectromechanical Systems Christian A. Zorman and Mehran Mehregany, Case Western Reserve University MEMS Fabrication, Marc J. Madou, Nanogen, Inc. LIGA and Other Replication Techniques, Marc J. Madou, Nanogen, Inc. X-Ray-Based Fabrication, Todd Christenson, Sandia National Laboratories Electrochemical Fabrication (EFAB), Adam L. Cohen, MEMGen Corporation Fabrication and Characterization of Single-Crystal Silicon Carbide MEMS, Robert S. Okojie, NASA Glenn Research Center Deep Reactive Ion Etching for Bulk Micromachining of Silicon Carbide, Glenn M. Beheim, NASA Glenn Research Center Microfabricated Chemical Sensors for Aerospace Applications, Gary W. Hunter, NASA Glenn Research Center, Chung-Chiun Liu, Case Western Reserve University, and Darby B. Makel, Makel Engineering, Inc. Packaging of Harsh-Environment MEMS Devices, Liang-Yu Chen and Jih-Fen Lei, NASA Glenn Research Center Part III: Applications of MEMS Inertial Sensors, Paul L. Bergstrom, Michigan Technological University, and Gary G. Li, OMM, Inc. Micromachined Pressure Sensors, Jae-Sung Park, Chester Wilson, and Yogesh B. Gianchandani, University of Wisconsin-Madison Sensors and Actuators for Turbulent Flows. Lennart Loefdahl, Chalmers University of Technology, and Mohamed Gad-el-Hak, University of Notre Dame Surface-Micromachined Mechanisms, Andrew D. Oliver and David W. Plummer, Sandia National Laboratories Microrobotics Thorbjoern Ebefors and Goeran Stemme, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden Microscale Vacuum Pumps, E. Phillip Muntz, University of Southern California, and Stephen E. Vargo, SiWave, Inc. Microdroplet Generators. Fan-Gang Tseng, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan Micro Heat Pipes and Micro Heat Spreaders, G. P. "Bud" Peterson, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Microchannel Heat Sinks, Yitshak Zohar, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Flow Control, Mohamed Gad-el-Hak, University of Notre Dame) Part IV: The Future Reactive Control for Skin-Friction Reduction, Haecheon Choi, Seoul National University Towards MEMS Autonomous Control of Free-Shear Flows, Ahmed Naguib, Michigan State University Fabrication Technologies for Nanoelectromechanical Systems, Gary H. Bernstein, Holly V. Goodson, and Gregory L. Snider, University of Notre Dame Index
TL;DR: A colloidal mixture of nano-sized particles in a base fluid, called nanofluids, tremendously enhances the heat transfer characteristics of the original fluid, and is ideally suited for practical applications due to its marvelous characteristics.
Abstract: A colloidal mixture of nano-sized particles in a base fluid, called nanofluids, tremendously enhances the heat transfer characteristics of the original fluid, and is ideally suited for practical applications due to its marvelous characteristics. This article addresses the unique features of nanofluids, such as enhancement of heat transfer, improvement in thermal conductivity, increase in surface volume ratio, Brownian motion, thermophoresis, etc. In addition, the article summarizes the recent research in experimental and theoretical studies on forced and free convective heat transfer in nanofluids, their thermo-physical properties and their applications, and identifies the challenges and opportunities for future research.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an overview of various cooling methods that can be employed for photovoltaic cells, including linear concentrators, single-cell arrangements, and densely packed photovolastic cells.
Abstract: Cooling of photovoltaic cells is one of the main concerns when designing concentrating photovoltaic systems. Cells may experience both short-term (efficiency loss) and long-term (irreversible damage) degradation due to excess temperatures. Design considerations for cooling systems include low and uniform cell temperatures, system reliability, sufficient capacity for dealing with ‘worst case scenarios’, and minimal power consumption by the system. This review presents an overview of various methods that can be employed for cooling of photovoltaic cells. It includes the application to photovoltaic cells of cooling alternatives found in other fields, namely nuclear reactors, gas turbines and the electronics industry. Different solar concentrators systems are examined, grouped according to geometry. The optimum cooling solutions differ between single-cell arrangements, linear concentrators and densely packed photovoltaic cells. Single cells typically only need passive cooling, even for very high solar concentrations. For densely packed cells under high concentrations (>150 suns), an active cooling system is necessary, with a thermal resistance of less than 10 −4 K m 2 /W. Only impinging jets and microchannels have been reported to achieve such low values. Two-phase forced convection would also be a viable alternative.
01 May 2012-Microelectronics Reliability
TL;DR: This paper provides the groundwork for an understanding of the reliability issues of LEDs across the supply chain and identifies the relationships between failure causes and their associated mechanisms, issues in thermal standardization, and critical areas of investigation and development in LED technology and reliability.
Abstract: The increasing demand for light emitting diodes (LEDs) has been driven by a number of application categories, including display backlighting, communications, medical services, signage, and general illumination. The construction of LEDs is somewhat similar to microelectronics, but there are functional requirements, materials, and interfaces in LEDs that make their failure modes and mechanisms unique. This paper presents a comprehensive review for industry and academic research on LED failure mechanisms and reliability to help LED developers and end-product manufacturers focus resources in an effective manner. The focus is on the reliability of LEDs at the die and package levels. The reliability information provided by the LED manufacturers is not at a mature enough stage to be useful to most consumers and end-product manufacturers. This paper provides the groundwork for an understanding of the reliability issues of LEDs across the supply chain. We provide an introduction to LEDs and present the key industries that use LEDs and LED applications. The construction details and fabrication steps of LEDs as they relate to failure mechanisms and reliability are discussed next. We then categorize LED failures into thirteen different groups related to semiconductor, interconnect, and package reliability issues. We then identify the relationships between failure causes and their associated mechanisms, issues in thermal standardization, and critical areas of investigation and development in LED technology and reliability.