Author

# Allen Gersho

Other affiliations: University of California, Berkeley, Bell Labs, University of California ...read more

Bio: Allen Gersho is an academic researcher from University of California, Santa Barbara. The author has contributed to research in topics: Vector quantization & Speech coding. The author has an hindex of 60, co-authored 266 publications receiving 22083 citations. Previous affiliations of Allen Gersho include University of California, Berkeley & Bell Labs.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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01 Jan 1991TL;DR: The author explains the design and implementation of the Levinson-Durbin Algorithm, which automates the very labor-intensive and therefore time-heavy and expensive process of designing and implementing a Quantizer.

Abstract: 1 Introduction- 11 Signals, Coding, and Compression- 12 Optimality- 13 How to Use this Book- 14 Related Reading- I Basic Tools- 2 Random Processes and Linear Systems- 21 Introduction- 22 Probability- 23 Random Variables and Vectors- 24 Random Processes- 25 Expectation- 26 Linear Systems- 27 Stationary and Ergodic Properties- 28 Useful Processes- 29 Problems- 3 Sampling- 31 Introduction- 32 Periodic Sampling- 33 Noise in Sampling- 34 Practical Sampling Schemes- 35 Sampling Jitter- 36 Multidimensional Sampling- 37 Problems- 4 Linear Prediction- 41 Introduction- 42 Elementary Estimation Theory- 43 Finite-Memory Linear Prediction- 44 Forward and Backward Prediction- 45 The Levinson-Durbin Algorithm- 46 Linear Predictor Design from Empirical Data- 47 Minimum Delay Property- 48 Predictability and Determinism- 49 Infinite Memory Linear Prediction- 410 Simulation of Random Processes- 411 Problems- II Scalar Coding- 5 Scalar Quantization I- 51 Introduction- 52 Structure of a Quantizer- 53 Measuring Quantizer Performance- 54 The Uniform Quantizer- 55 Nonuniform Quantization and Companding- 56 High Resolution: General Case- 57 Problems- 6 Scalar Quantization II- 61 Introduction- 62 Conditions for Optimality- 63 High Resolution Optimal Companding- 64 Quantizer Design Algorithms- 65 Implementation- 66 Problems- 7 Predictive Quantization- 71 Introduction- 72 Difference Quantization- 73 Closed-Loop Predictive Quantization- 74 Delta Modulation- 75 Problems- 8 Bit Allocation and Transform Coding- 81 Introduction- 82 The Problem of Bit Allocation- 83 Optimal Bit Allocation Results- 84 Integer Constrained Allocation Techniques- 85 Transform Coding- 86 Karhunen-Loeve Transform- 87 Performance Gain of Transform Coding- 88 Other Transforms- 89 Sub-band Coding- 810 Problems- 9 Entropy Coding- 91 Introduction- 92 Variable-Length Scalar Noiseless Coding- 93 Prefix Codes- 94 Huffman Coding- 95 Vector Entropy Coding- 96 Arithmetic Coding- 97 Universal and Adaptive Entropy Coding- 98 Ziv-Lempel Coding- 99 Quantization and Entropy Coding- 910 Problems- III Vector Coding- 10 Vector Quantization I- 101 Introduction- 102 Structural Properties and Characterization- 103 Measuring Vector Quantizer Performance- 104 Nearest Neighbor Quantizers- 105 Lattice Vector Quantizers- 106 High Resolution Distortion Approximations- 107 Problems- 11 Vector Quantization II- 111 Introduction- 112 Optimality Conditions for VQ- 113 Vector Quantizer Design- 114 Design Examples- 115 Problems- 12 Constrained Vector Quantization- 121 Introduction- 122 Complexity and Storage Limitations- 123 Structurally Constrained VQ- 124 Tree-Structured VQ- 125 Classified VQ- 126 Transform VQ- 127 Product Code Techniques- 128 Partitioned VQ- 129 Mean-Removed VQ- 1210 Shape-Gain VQ- 1211 Multistage VQ- 1212 Constrained Storage VQ- 1213 Hierarchical and Multiresolution VQ- 1214 Nonlinear Interpolative VQ- 1215 Lattice Codebook VQ- 1216 Fast Nearest Neighbor Encoding- 1217 Problems- 13 Predictive Vector Quantization- 131 Introduction- 132 Predictive Vector Quantization- 133 Vector Linear Prediction- 134 Predictor Design from Empirical Data- 135 Nonlinear Vector Prediction- 136 Design Examples- 137 Problems- 14 Finite-State Vector Quantization- 141 Recursive Vector Quantizers- 142 Finite-State Vector Quantizers- 143 Labeled-States and Labeled-Transitions- 144 Encoder/Decoder Design- 145 Next-State Function Design- 146 Design Examples- 147 Problems- 15 Tree and Trellis Encoding- 151 Delayed Decision Encoder- 152 Tree and Trellis Coding- 153 Decoder Design- 154 Predictive Trellis Encoders- 155 Other Design Techniques- 156 Problems- 16 Adaptive Vector Quantization- 161 Introduction- 162 Mean Adaptation- 163 Gain-Adaptive Vector Quantization- 164 Switched Codebook Adaptation- 165 Adaptive Bit Allocation- 166 Address VQ- 167 Progressive Code Vector Updating- 168 Adaptive Codebook Generation- 169 Vector Excitation Coding- 1610 Problems- 17 Variable Rate Vector Quantization- 171 Variable Rate Coding- 172 Variable Dimension VQ- 173 Alternative Approaches to Variable Rate VQ- 174 Pruned Tree-Structured VQ- 175 The Generalized BFOS Algorithm- 176 Pruned Tree-Structured VQ- 177 Entropy Coded VQ- 178 Greedy Tree Growing- 179 Design Examples- 1710 Bit Allocation Revisited- 1711 Design Algorithms- 1712 Problems

7,015 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a quantitative derivation for the acoustic signal in a photoacoustic cell in terms of the optical, thermal, and geometric parameters of the system is presented. And the theory predicts the dependence of the signal on the absorption coefficient of the solid, thereby giving a theoretical foundation for the technique of photoacoustical spectroscopy.

Abstract: When chopped light impinges on a solid in an enclosed cell, an acoustic signal is produced within the cell. This effect is the basis of a new spectroscopic technique for the study of solid and semisolid matter. A quantitative derivation is presented for the acoustic signal in a photoacoustic cell in terms of the optical, thermal, and geometric parameters of the system. The theory predicts the dependence of the signal on the absorption coefficient of the solid, thereby giving a theoretical foundation for the technique of photoacoustic spectroscopy. In particular, the theory accounts for the experimental observation that with this technique optical absorption spectra can be obtained for materials that are optically opaque.

2,278 citations

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Bell Labs

^{1}TL;DR: A heuristic argument generalizing Bennett's formula to block quantization where a vector of random variables is quantized is given, leading to a rigorous method for obtaining upper bounds on the minimum distortion for block quantizers.

Abstract: In 1948 W. R. Bennett used a companding model for nonuniform quantization and proposed the formula D \: = \: \frac{1}{12N^{2}} \: \int \: p(x) [ E(x) ]^{-2} \dx for the mean-square quantizing error where N is the number of levels, p (x) is the probability density of the input, and E \prime (x) is the slope of the compressor curve. The formula, an approximation based on the assumption that the number of levels is large and overload distortion is negligible, is a useful tool for analytical studies of quantization. This paper gives a heuristic argument generalizing Bennett's formula to block quantization where a vector of random variables is quantized. The approach is again based on the asymptotic situation where N , the number of quantized output vectors, is very large. Using the resulting heuristic formula, an optimization is performed leading to an expression for the minimum quantizing noise attainable for any block quantizer of a given block size k . The results are consistent with Zador's results and specialize to known results for the one- and two-dimensional cases and for the case of infinite block length (k \rightarrow \infty) . The same heuristic approach also gives an alternate derivation of a bound of Elias for multidimensional quantization. Our approach leads to a rigorous method for obtaining upper bounds on the minimum distortion for block quantizers. In particular, for k = 3 we give a tight upper bound that may in fact be exact. The idea of representing a block quantizer by a block "compressor" mapping followed with an optimal quantizer for uniformly distributed random vectors is also explored. It is not always possible to represent an optimal quantizer with this block companding model.

936 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a bit allocation algorithm that is capable of efficiently allocating a given quota of bits to an arbitrary set of different quantizers is proposed, which produces an optimal or very nearly optimal allocation, while allowing the set of admissible bit allocation values to be constrained to nonnegative integers.

Abstract: A bit allocation algorithm that is capable of efficiently allocating a given quota of bits to an arbitrary set of different quantizers is proposed. This algorithm is useful in any coding scheme which uses bit allocation or, more generally, codebook allocation. It produces an optimal or very nearly optimal allocation, while allowing the set of admissible bit allocation values to be constrained to nonnegative integers. It is particularly useful in cases where the quantizer performance versus rate is irregular and changing in time, a situation that cannot be handled by conventional allocation algorithms. >

822 citations

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TL;DR: This work proposes a new coding method, classified vector quantization (CVQ), which is based on a composite source model and obtains better perceptual quality with significantly lower complexity with CVQ when compared to ordinary VQ.

Abstract: Vector quantization (VQ) provides many attractive features for image coding with high compression ratios. However, initial studies of image coding with VQ have revealed several difficulties, most notably edge degradation and high computational complexity. We address these two problems and propose a new coding method, classified vector quantization (CVQ), which is based on a composite source model. Blocks with distinct perceptual features, such as edges, are generated from different subsources, i.e., belong to different classes. In CVQ, a classifier determines the class for each block, and the block is then coded with a vector quantizer designed specifically for that class. We obtain better perceptual quality with significantly lower complexity with CVQ when compared to ordinary VQ. We demonstrate with CVQ visual quality which is comparable to that produced by existing coders of similar complexity, for rates in the range 0.6-1.0 bits/pixel.

485 citations

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08 Sep 2000TL;DR: This book presents dozens of algorithms and implementation examples, all in pseudo-code and suitable for use in real-world, large-scale data mining projects, and provides a comprehensive, practical look at the concepts and techniques you need to get the most out of real business data.

Abstract: The increasing volume of data in modern business and science calls for more complex and sophisticated tools. Although advances in data mining technology have made extensive data collection much easier, it's still always evolving and there is a constant need for new techniques and tools that can help us transform this data into useful information and knowledge. Since the previous edition's publication, great advances have been made in the field of data mining. Not only does the third of edition of Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques continue the tradition of equipping you with an understanding and application of the theory and practice of discovering patterns hidden in large data sets, it also focuses on new, important topics in the field: data warehouses and data cube technology, mining stream, mining social networks, and mining spatial, multimedia and other complex data. Each chapter is a stand-alone guide to a critical topic, presenting proven algorithms and sound implementations ready to be used directly or with strategic modification against live data. This is the resource you need if you want to apply today's most powerful data mining techniques to meet real business challenges. * Presents dozens of algorithms and implementation examples, all in pseudo-code and suitable for use in real-world, large-scale data mining projects. * Addresses advanced topics such as mining object-relational databases, spatial databases, multimedia databases, time-series databases, text databases, the World Wide Web, and applications in several fields. *Provides a comprehensive, practical look at the concepts and techniques you need to get the most out of real business data

23,600 citations

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01 Jan 1998

TL;DR: An introduction to a Transient World and an Approximation Tour of Wavelet Packet and Local Cosine Bases.

Abstract: Introduction to a Transient World. Fourier Kingdom. Discrete Revolution. Time Meets Frequency. Frames. Wavelet Zoom. Wavelet Bases. Wavelet Packet and Local Cosine Bases. An Approximation Tour. Estimations are Approximations. Transform Coding. Appendix A: Mathematical Complements. Appendix B: Software Toolboxes.

17,693 citations

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TL;DR: A novel algorithm for adapting dictionaries in order to achieve sparse signal representations, the K-SVD algorithm, an iterative method that alternates between sparse coding of the examples based on the current dictionary and a process of updating the dictionary atoms to better fit the data.

Abstract: In recent years there has been a growing interest in the study of sparse representation of signals. Using an overcomplete dictionary that contains prototype signal-atoms, signals are described by sparse linear combinations of these atoms. Applications that use sparse representation are many and include compression, regularization in inverse problems, feature extraction, and more. Recent activity in this field has concentrated mainly on the study of pursuit algorithms that decompose signals with respect to a given dictionary. Designing dictionaries to better fit the above model can be done by either selecting one from a prespecified set of linear transforms or adapting the dictionary to a set of training signals. Both of these techniques have been considered, but this topic is largely still open. In this paper we propose a novel algorithm for adapting dictionaries in order to achieve sparse signal representations. Given a set of training signals, we seek the dictionary that leads to the best representation for each member in this set, under strict sparsity constraints. We present a new method-the K-SVD algorithm-generalizing the K-means clustering process. K-SVD is an iterative method that alternates between sparse coding of the examples based on the current dictionary and a process of updating the dictionary atoms to better fit the data. The update of the dictionary columns is combined with an update of the sparse representations, thereby accelerating convergence. The K-SVD algorithm is flexible and can work with any pursuit method (e.g., basis pursuit, FOCUSS, or matching pursuit). We analyze this algorithm and demonstrate its results both on synthetic tests and in applications on real image data

8,905 citations

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TL;DR: An efficient and intuitive algorithm is presented for the design of vector quantizers based either on a known probabilistic model or on a long training sequence of data.

Abstract: An efficient and intuitive algorithm is presented for the design of vector quantizers based either on a known probabilistic model or on a long training sequence of data. The basic properties of the algorithm are discussed and demonstrated by examples. Quite general distortion measures and long blocklengths are allowed, as exemplified by the design of parameter vector quantizers of ten-dimensional vectors arising in Linear Predictive Coded (LPC) speech compression with a complicated distortion measure arising in LPC analysis that does not depend only on the error vector.

7,935 citations

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TL;DR: An algorithm based on an enhanced sparse representation in transform domain based on a specially developed collaborative Wiener filtering achieves state-of-the-art denoising performance in terms of both peak signal-to-noise ratio and subjective visual quality.

Abstract: We propose a novel image denoising strategy based on an enhanced sparse representation in transform domain. The enhancement of the sparsity is achieved by grouping similar 2D image fragments (e.g., blocks) into 3D data arrays which we call "groups." Collaborative Altering is a special procedure developed to deal with these 3D groups. We realize it using the three successive steps: 3D transformation of a group, shrinkage of the transform spectrum, and inverse 3D transformation. The result is a 3D estimate that consists of the jointly filtered grouped image blocks. By attenuating the noise, the collaborative filtering reveals even the finest details shared by grouped blocks and, at the same time, it preserves the essential unique features of each individual block. The filtered blocks are then returned to their original positions. Because these blocks are overlapping, for each pixel, we obtain many different estimates which need to be combined. Aggregation is a particular averaging procedure which is exploited to take advantage of this redundancy. A significant improvement is obtained by a specially developed collaborative Wiener filtering. An algorithm based on this novel denoising strategy and its efficient implementation are presented in full detail; an extension to color-image denoising is also developed. The experimental results demonstrate that this computationally scalable algorithm achieves state-of-the-art denoising performance in terms of both peak signal-to-noise ratio and subjective visual quality.

7,912 citations