TL;DR: It could be concluded that the essential oil of T. vulgaris has a potential antioxidant activity and a protective effect against AFs toxicity and this protection was dose dependent.
Abstract: The leafy parts of thyme and its essential oil have been used in foods for the flavor, aroma and preservation and also in folk medicines. The aim of the current study was to determine the components of Thymus vulgaris L essential oil and to evaluate the protective effects of this oil against aflatoxin-induce oxidative stress in rats. Thirty six mature male Sprague-Dawley were divided into six treatment groups and treated for 2 weeks as follows: control group; the groups treated orally with low and high doses of T. vulgaris oil (5 and 7.5 mg/kg b.w.); the group fed AFs-contaminated diet (2.5 mg/kg diet) and the groups fed AFs-contaminated diet and treated orally with the oil at the two tested doses. Blood and tissue samples were collected at the end of treatment period for biochemical study and histological examination. The results indicated that the oil contains Carvarcrol (45 mg/g), Thymol (24.7 mg/g), β-Phellandrene (9.7 mg/g), Linalool (4.1 mg/g), Humuline (3.1 mg/g), α-Phellandrene (2.3 mg/g) and Myrcene (2.1 mg/g). However, α and β-pinene, Myrcene, α-thyjone, Tricyclene, 1, 8-cineole, and β-sabinene were found in lower concentrations. Treatment with AFs alone disturbs lipid profile in serum, decreases Total antioxidant capacity, increase creatinine, uric acid and nitric oxide in serum and lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney accompanied with a sever histological changes in the liver tissues. The oil alone at the two tested doses did not induce any significant changes in the biochemical parameters or the histological picture. The combined treatment showed significant improvements in all tested parameters and histological pictures in the liver tissues. Moreover, this improvement was more pronounced in the group received the high dose of the oil. It could be concluded that the essential oil of T. vulgaris has a potential antioxidant activity and a protective effect against AFs toxicity and this protection was dose dependent.
TL;DR: This work has reviewed various strategies for the detoxification of mycotoxins using microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast and fungi.
Abstract: Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites and are reported to be carcinogenic, genotoxic, teratogenic, dermato-, nephro- and hepatotoxic. Several studies have shown that economic losses due to mycotoxins occur at all levels of food and feed production, including crop and animal production, processing and distribution. Therefore, there is a great demand for a novel approach to prevent both the formation of mycotoxins in food and feed and the impact of existing mycotoxin contamination. Recently, investigators have reported that many microorganisms including bacteria, yeast, moulds, actinomycetes and algae are able to remove or degrade mycotoxins in food and feed. We have reviewed various strategies for the detoxification of mycotoxins using microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast and fungi.
TL;DR: Treatments with L1 or L2 succeeded to induce a significant improvement in all the biochemical parameters and histological picture of the liver and L2 was more effective than L1 and both can be used safely in functional foods.
Abstract: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been reported to remove mycotoxins from aqueous solutions through a binding process, which appears to be species and strain specific. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the protective role of Lactobacillus casei (L1) and Lactobacillus reuteri (L2) against aflatoxin (AFs)-induced oxidative stress in rats. Sixty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups including the control group and the groups treated with L1 or L2 (1 x 10¹¹/ml) alone at a dose of 10 ml/kg b.w or plus AFs (3 mg/kg diet) for 4 weeks. At the end of the treatments, blood and tissue samples were collected for biochemical and histological studies. The results indicated that AFs alone induced a significant decrease in food intake and body weight and a significant increase in transaminase, alkaline phosphatase cholesterol, triglycerides, total lipids, creatinine, uric acid and nitric oxide in serum and lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney accompanied with a significant decrease in total antioxidant capacity. Treatments with L1 or L2 succeeded to induce a significant improvement in all the biochemical parameters and histological picture of the liver. Moreover, L2 was more effective than L1 and both can be used safely in functional foods.
TL;DR: In this article, the major components of star anise essential oil identified by GC/MS were trans-anethole (82.7%), carryophyllene (4.8%), limonene (2.3%), and limonensene (1.3%).
Abstract: In recent years scientists have focused on the identification and the application of natural products for inactivation of mycotoxins. Essential oils with antimicrobial properties are probably the most promising method for the prevention of potentially toxigenic fungi. Thus the aim of this work is to characterise star anise (Illicium verum) and to assess its antioxidant and antifungal and antimycotoxigenic properties using different methods. Results revealed that the major components of star anise essential oil identified by GC/MS were trans-anethole (82.7%), carryophyllene (4.8%) and limonene (2.3%). Total phenolics of ethanol and methanol extracts recorded 112.4 and 96.3 mg GAE/g DW respectively, whereas higher total flavonoid content was recorded for the eth- anol extract than the methanol extract. Star anise essential oil showed lower antioxidant activity (55.6 mg/mL) than the extracts using DPPH-scavenging and b-carotene/linoleic acid assays. Results revealed growth reduction of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus and Fusarium verticillioides by 83.2%, 72.8% and 65.11%, respectively when using 100 ppm of the star anise essential oil, where a complete inhibition was achieved at 200 ppm for A. flavus and A. parasiticus respectively. Afla- toxin B1 and Fumonisin B1 production were inhibited completely at 100 and 200 ppm respectively. It could be concluded that star anise extracts could be considered an important substance that should be explored for the discovery and development of newer and safer food supplements as well as drug products. a 2014 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University.
TL;DR: In this paper, a study was conducted to determine the possible contamination levels of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and nickel (Ni) in some selected fruits obtained from four Egyptian governorates and to compare the contamination levels with those of the recommended permissible limits.
Abstract: Heavy metals are considered a main public health hazards, they are known to accumulate in fruits, which are heavily consumed by humans because of their unique sweet taste and potential health benefits. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the possible contamination levels of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) in some selected fruits obtained from four Egyptian governorates and to compare the contamination levels with those of the recommended permissible limits. Results revealed that Pb and Cd were absent in all fruit samples, while Cr was only detected in grapes obtained from Cairo and Fayoum governorates and exceeded the maximum permissible limit (0.10 mg kg−1). Nickel and Cu were detected in all fruit samples. Nickel was reduced more than copper after washing process of grapes especially in samples obtained from Alexandria and Giza governorates. After peeling process, Cu was extremely reduced in orange samples obtained from the following governorates in descending order Cairo, Alexandria, El-Fayoum and Giza. Estimated daily intake of heavy metals in fruit samples were found to be higher than that of the tolerable daily intake, indicating potential risk to human health. Therefore, to decrease the risk to human health, fruits must be washed well before eating to decrease heavy metal concentrations.
TL;DR: The need to implement new and/or existing detoxification methods to reduce the global burden of AFB1 toxicity is highlighted, as it shows that AFB1 occurs frequently in food supplies at high concentrations, particularly in maize.
Abstract: Aflatoxins are a class of carcinogenic mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus fungi and are known to contaminate a large portion of the world's food supply. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most potent of these compounds and has been well-characterized to lead to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans and animals. This review focuses on the metabolism of AFB1, including epoxidation and DNA adduction, as it concerns the initiation of cancer and the underlying mechanisms. The link between AFB1 consumption and HCC is also discussed including synergistic interactions with the hepatitis B virus. Toxic effects of AFB1, including growth suppression, malnutrition, and immunomodulation, are also covered. This review also describes recent reports of AFB1 occurrence in global food supplies and exposures in occupational settings. Furthermore, a summary of recent detoxification methods is included to indicate the present state of the field in developing aflatoxin control methods. This information shows that AFB1 occurs frequently in food supplies at high concentrations, particularly in maize. Regarding detoxification methods, chemical control methods were the fastest methods that still retained high detoxification efficacy. The information presented here highlights the need to implement new and/or existing detoxification methods to reduce the global burden of AFB1 toxicity.
TL;DR: While physical techniques currently offer the most efficient post-harvest reduction of mycotoxin content in food, biotechnology possesses the largest potential for future developments.
Abstract: Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites commonly occurring in food, which pose a health risk to the consumer. Maximum levels for major mycotoxins allowed in food have been established worldwide. Good agricultural practices, plant disease management, and adequate storage conditions limit mycotoxin levels in the food chain yet do not eliminate mycotoxins completely. Food processing can further reduce mycotoxin levels by physical removal and decontamination by chemical or enzymatic transformation of mycotoxins into less toxic products. Physical removal of mycotoxins is very efficient: manual sorting of grains, nuts, and fruits by farmers as well as automatic sorting by the industry significantly lowers the mean mycotoxin content. Further processing such as milling, steeping, and extrusion can also reduce mycotoxin content. Mycotoxins can be detoxified chemically by reacting with food components and technical aids; these reactions are facilitated by high temperature and alkaline or acidic conditions. Detoxification of mycotoxins can also be achieved enzymatically. Some enzymes able to transform mycotoxins naturally occur in food commodities or are produced during fermentation but more efficient detoxification can be achieved by deliberate introduction of purified enzymes. We recommend integrating evaluation of processing technologies for their impact on mycotoxins into risk management. Processing steps proven to mitigate mycotoxin contamination should be used whenever necessary. Development of detoxification technologies for high-risk commodities should be a priority for research. While physical techniques currently offer the most efficient post-harvest reduction of mycotoxin content in food, biotechnology possesses the largest potential for future developments.
TL;DR: Probiotic strains which are capable to limit excessive amounts of reactive radicals in vivo may contribute to prevent and control several diseases associated with oxidative stress.
Abstract: Thirty-four strains of lactic acid bacteria (seven Bifidobacterium, 11 Lactobacillus, six Lactococcus, and 10 Streptococcus thermophilus) were assayed in vitro for antioxidant activity against ascorbic and linolenic acid oxidation (TAA(AA) and TAA(LA)), trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), intracellular glutathione (TGSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Wide dispersion of each of TAA(AA), TAA(LA), TEAC, TGSH, and SOD occurred within bacterial groups, indicating that antioxidative properties are strain specific. The strains Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis DSMZ 23032, Lactobacillus acidophilus DSMZ 23033, and Lactobacillus brevis DSMZ 23034 exhibited among the highest TAA(AA), TAA(LA), TEAC, and TGSH values within the lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. These strains were used to prepare a potentially antioxidative probiotic formulation, which was administered to rats at the dose of 10(7), 10(8), and 10(9) cfu/day for 18 days. The probiotic strains colonized the colon of the rats during the trial and promoted intestinal saccharolytic metabolism. The analysis of plasma antioxidant activity, reactive oxygen molecules level, and glutathione concentration, revealed that, when administered at doses of at least 10(8) cfu/day, the antioxidant mixture effectively reduced doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress. Probiotic strains which are capable to limit excessive amounts of reactive radicals in vivo may contribute to prevent and control several diseases associated with oxidative stress.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that Fhb7, when introgressed into diverse wheat backgrounds by distant hybridization, confers broad resistance to both FHB and crown rot without penalizing wheat yield and is suggested a source of Fusarium resistance for wheat improvement.
Abstract: Fusarium head blight (FHB), a fungal disease caused by Fusarium species that produce food toxins, currently devastates wheat production worldwide, yet few resistance resources have been discovered in wheat germplasm. Here, we cloned the FHB resistance gene Fhb7 by assembling the genome of Thinopyrum elongatum, a species used in wheat distant hybridization breeding. Fhb7 encodes a glutathione S-transferase (GST) and confers broad resistance to Fusarium species by detoxifying trichothecenes through de-epoxidation. Fhb7 GST homologs are absent in plants, and our evidence supports that Th. elongatum has gained Fhb7 through horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from an endophytic Epichloe species. Fhb7 introgressions in wheat confers resistance to both FHB and crown rot in diverse wheat backgrounds without yield penalty, providing a solution for Fusarium resistance breeding.