Other affiliations: University of Calcutta
Bio: Amartya Dutta is an academic researcher from B. P. Poddar Institute of Management & Technology. The author has contributed to research in topics: Biochip & Routing (electronic design automation). The author has an hindex of 3, co-authored 10 publications receiving 32 citations. Previous affiliations of Amartya Dutta include University of Calcutta.
••03 Jan 1993
01 Dec 2014
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed a design using equilateral triangular electrodes instead of square electrodes, maintaining all the constraints required to ensure safe droplet movement and other modular operations, while improvement of the mixing operation is the key design issue.
Abstract: Digital Microfluidic Biochip (DMFB) is a ground-breaking invention in many areas of Microelectronics, Biochemistry, and Biomedical sciences. It is also known as ‘Lab-on-a-Chip’ for its performance as an alternative for laboratory experiments. Various types of diagnosis procedures are performed on it through a sequence of modular operations like sample preparation, mixing, and detection. Mixing is the most important operation of DMFB as the outcome of the experiment is almost dominated by mixing. A good mixing of corresponding sample and reagent gives proper result while an improper mixing leads to erroneous result, which may be the reason to discard the assay. So, our objective is the betterment of mixing operation. In this paper, we have proposed a design using equilateral triangular electrodes instead of square electrodes, maintaining all the constraints required to ensure safe droplet movement and other modular operations, while improvement of the mixing operation is the key design issue.
TL;DR: This work has addressed many facets of such electrodes regarding their structural and behavioural issues in comparison to the existing square electrodes in this newly designed equilateral triangular electrodes based DMFB systems.
01 Mar 2017
TL;DR: In this paper, a new application area of DMFB using equilateral triangular electrodes instead of square electrodes has been proposed, considering the design issues and the fluidic constraints while performing all the modular operations.
Abstract: Microfluidic biochip is a lab-on-a-chip system that replaces conventional laboratory experiments. Digital Microfluidic Biochip (DMFB) handles liquids as discrete droplets, and offers highly reconfigurable and scalable technology. DMFB combines electronics with biology opening the new application areas of Microelectronics, Biochemistry, and Biomedical sciences. A new application area of DMFB using equilateral triangular electrodes instead of square electrodes has been proposed, considering the design issues and the fluidic constraints while performing all the modular operations. The improvement of sample-reagent mixing procedure is a key challenge issue in bioassay implementation as mixing is the most dominating operation in DMFB; hence, the Triangular DMFB (TEDMB) system leads over the existing DMFB system. In this paper, we have presented a study of TEDMB mixers and developed mixing library for TEDMB synthesis.
01 Jan 2019
TL;DR: This paper presents two-dimensional regular hexagonal digital microfluidic electrode (HDMFB) array, and proposes an algorithm for efficient control pin assignment on the chip such that no droplet interference on theChip array occurs during an assay operation.
Abstract: In recent times, digital microfluidic biochips have received an appreciable recognition as one of the most promising platforms for lab-on-a-chip attainment. Such a compound system can replace most of the laboratory experiments by controlling nano-litre or micro-litre volume of droplets and yield more accurate and faster results depending upon electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) principle. Being aware of the fact about the progress of traditional square electrode biochips in the digital microfluidic realm, here in this paper, we present two-dimensional regular hexagonal digital microfluidic electrode (HDMFB) array. A hexagonal chip array offers numerous advantages over a square array like droplet movement, mixing operation, speed, etc. To cope with this new design technique care should be taken for fluidic constraints and electrode constraints to ensure safe droplet routing. Here, we propose an algorithm for efficient control pin assignment on the chip such that no droplet interference on the chip array occurs during an assay operation. Moreover, a multiplexed assay operation is performed by a scheduling algorithm, and the result is compared with a previous work conducted on the conventional square electrode array. Finally, a comparative study is done on the proposed architecture and the existing one on some relevant issues.
••04 Jan 1995
TL;DR: A general framework for viewing a class of heuristics for track assignment in channel routing from a purely graph theoretic angle is proposed and an algorithm for minimizing the total wire length in the two-layer VH and three-layer HVH routing models is designed.
Abstract: In this paper we propose a general framework for viewing a class of heuristics for track assignment in channel routing from a purely graph theoretic angle. Within this framework we propose algorithms for computing routing solutions using optimal or near optimal number of tracks for several well-known benchmark channels in the two-layer VH. Three-layer HVH, and multi-layer V/sub i/H/sub i/ and V/sub i/H/sub i+1/ routing models. Within the same framework we also design an algorithm for minimizing the total wire length in the two-layer VH and three-layer HVH routing models.
TL;DR: The DMFs which are powered by alternative sources other than electrical sources are discussed and their potential for future portable biochemical assays are evaluated.
Abstract: Digital microfluidics (DMFs) show great potential in the fields of lab-on-a-chip applications for electro-chemical as well as biochemical sensing for decades. Various types of DMF devices have been demonstrated to improve their capabilities such as smaller device size for portability, higher reliability, and multi-purpose applications, etc. Among them, the electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) is one of the most widely used mechanisms to manipulate droplets due to its good flexibility. On the other hand, the high-voltage application that required for EWOD-type DMF also limits the portability and dimension of the whole system. In this review, we discuss the DMFs which are powered by alternative sources other than electrical sources and evaluate their potential for future portable biochemical assays. Then, the demonstrations reported with the possibility beyond high voltage are discussed starting from lowering voltage requirement for EWODs to the unique methods using mechanical, optical, and energy harvesting to power DMF devices. Finally, the practical applications and prospective on the integrated multi-functional lab-on-a-chip applications are tackled.
TL;DR: The flexible DMF chips have successfully implemented basic droplet operations on a square and hexagon electrode array and were evaluated to demonstrate that the proposed technology is comparable to the traditional DMF fabrication process.
Abstract: In order to get rid of the dependence on expensive photolithography technology and related facilities, an economic and simple design and fabrication technology for digital microfluidics (DMF) is proposed. The electrodes pattern was generated by inkjet printing nanosilver conductive ink on the flexible Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate with a 3D circuit board printer, food wrap film was attached to the electrode array to act as the dielectric layer and Teflon® AF was sprayed to form a hydrophobic layer. The PET substrate and food wrap film are low cost and accessible to general users. The proposed flexible DMF chips can be reused for a long time by replacing the dielectric film coated with hydrophobic layer. The resolution and conductivity of silver traces and the contact angle and velocity of the droplets were evaluated to demonstrate that the proposed technology is comparable to the traditional DMF fabrication process. As far as the rapid prototyping of DMF is concerned, this technology has shown very attractive advantages in many aspects, such as fabrication cost, fabrication time, material selection and mass production capacity, without sacrificing the performance of DMF. The flexible DMF chips have successfully implemented basic droplet operations on a square and hexagon electrode array.
TL;DR: The first actual proofs of the NP -completeness of routing and pin assignment of Digital Microfluidic Biochips are presented, proving the use of general-purpose approaches like SAT solvers is indeed justified.
TL;DR: A deterministic polynomial time algorithm is proposed that computes a better and non-trivial lower bound on the number of tracks required for routing a channel without doglegging.