Other affiliations: Ministry of Communications, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ...read more
Bio: Amir Adler is an academic researcher from ORT Braude College of Engineering. The author has contributed to research in topics: Sparse approximation & Inpainting. The author has an hindex of 12, co-authored 46 publications receiving 991 citations. Previous affiliations of Amir Adler include Ministry of Communications & Technion – Israel Institute of Technology.
TL;DR: This work proposes and implements a novel concept that bypasses these demanding steps, directly producing an accurate gridding or layered velocity model from shot gathers, and relies on training deep neural networks.
Abstract: Velocity-model building is a key step in hydrocarbon exploration. The main product of velocity-model building is an initial model of the subsurface that is subsequently used in seismic ima...
TL;DR: The audio inpainting framework that recovers portions of audio data distorted due to impairments such as impulsive noise, clipping, and packet loss is proposed and this approach is shown to outperform state-of-the-art and commercially available methods for audio declipping in terms of Signal-to-Noise Ratio.
Abstract: We propose the audio inpainting framework that recovers portions of audio data distorted due to impairments such as impulsive noise, clipping, and packet loss. In this framework, the distorted data are treated as missing and their location is assumed to be known. The signal is decomposed into overlapping time-domain frames and the restoration problem is then formulated as an inverse problem per audio frame. Sparse representation modeling is employed per frame, and each inverse problem is solved using the Orthogonal Matching Pursuit algorithm together with a discrete cosine or a Gabor dictionary. The Signal-to-Noise Ratio performance of this algorithm is shown to be comparable or better than state-of-the-art methods when blocks of samples of variable durations are missing. We also demonstrate that the size of the block of missing samples, rather than the overall number of missing samples, is a crucial parameter for high quality signal restoration. We further introduce a constrained Matching Pursuit approach for the special case of audio declipping that exploits the sign pattern of clipped audio samples and their maximal absolute value, as well as allowing the user to specify the maximum amplitude of the signal. This approach is shown to outperform state-of-the-art and commercially available methods for audio declipping in terms of Signal-to-Noise Ratio.
••14 Nov 2013
TL;DR: The proposed approach utilizes the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM) to recover simultaneously the sparse representations and the outliers components for the entire collection to provide a unified solution both for jointly sparse and independently sparse data vectors.
Abstract: We consider the problem of simultaneous sparse coding and anomaly detection in a collection of data vectors. The majority of the data vectors are assumed to conform with a sparse representation model, whereas the anomaly is caused by an unknown subset of the data vectors - the outliers - which significantly deviate from this model. The proposed approach utilizes the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM) to recover simultaneously the sparse representations and the outliers components for the entire collection. This approach provides a unified solution both for jointly sparse and independently sparse data vectors. We demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed approach for irregular heartbeats detection in Electrocardiogram (ECG) and specular reflectance removal from natural images.
22 May 2011
TL;DR: In this work, the clipped signal is decomposed into overlapping frames and the declipping problem is formulated as an inverse problem, per audio frame, which is solved by a constrained matching pursuit algorithm, that exploits the sign pattern of the clipped samples and their maximal absolute value.
Abstract: We present a novel sparse representation based approach for the restoration of clipped audio signals. In the proposed approach, the clipped signal is decomposed into overlapping frames and the declipping problem is formulated as an inverse problem, per audio frame. This problem is further solved by a constrained matching pursuit algorithm, that exploits the sign pattern of the clipped samples and their maximal absolute value. Performance evaluation with a collection of music and speech signals demonstrate superior results compared to existing algorithms, over a wide range of clipping levels.
••01 Oct 2017
TL;DR: A deep learning approach for block-based CS is presented, in which a fully-connected network performs both the block- based linear sensing and non-linear reconstruction stages, and out-performs state-of-the-art both in terms of reconstruction quality and computation time.
Abstract: Compressed sensing (CS) is a signal processing framework for efficiently reconstructing a signal from a small number of measurements, obtained by linear projections of the signal. Block-based CS is a lightweight CS approach that is mostly suitable for processing very high-dimensional images and videos: it operates on local patches, employs a low-complexity reconstruction operator and requires significantly less memory to store the sensing matrix. In this paper we present a deep learning approach for block-based CS, in which a fully-connected network performs both the block-based linear sensing and non-linear reconstruction stages. During the training phase, the sensing matrix and the non-linear reconstruction operator are jointly optimized, and the proposed approach out-performs state-of-the-art both in terms of reconstruction quality and computation time. For example, at a 25% sensing rate the average PSNR advantage is 0.77dB and computation time is over 200-times faster.
TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …
TL;DR: This paper demonstrates that the coupled dictionary learning method can outperform the existing joint dictionary training method both quantitatively and qualitatively and speed up the algorithm approximately 10 times by learning a neural network model for fast sparse inference and selectively processing only those visually salient regions.
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a novel coupled dictionary training method for single-image super-resolution (SR) based on patchwise sparse recovery, where the learned couple dictionaries relate the low- and high-resolution (HR) image patch spaces via sparse representation. The learning process enforces that the sparse representation of a low-resolution (LR) image patch in terms of the LR dictionary can well reconstruct its underlying HR image patch with the dictionary in the high-resolution image patch space. We model the learning problem as a bilevel optimization problem, where the optimization includes an l1-norm minimization problem in its constraints. Implicit differentiation is employed to calculate the desired gradient for stochastic gradient descent. We demonstrate that our coupled dictionary learning method can outperform the existing joint dictionary training method both quantitatively and qualitatively. Furthermore, for real applications, we speed up the algorithm approximately 10 times by learning a neural network model for fast sparse inference and selectively processing only those visually salient regions. Extensive experimental comparisons with state-of-the-art SR algorithms validate the effectiveness of our proposed approach.
••18 Jun 2018
TL;DR: This paper proposes a novel structured deep network, dubbed ISTA-Net, which is inspired by the Iterative Shrinkage-Thresholding Algorithm (ISTA) for optimizing a general $$ norm CS reconstruction model and develops an effective strategy to solve the proximal mapping associated with the sparsity-inducing regularizer using nonlinear transforms.
Abstract: With the aim of developing a fast yet accurate algorithm for compressive sensing (CS) reconstruction of natural images, we combine in this paper the merits of two existing categories of CS methods: the structure insights of traditional optimization-based methods and the speed of recent network-based ones. Specifically, we propose a novel structured deep network, dubbed ISTA-Net, which is inspired by the Iterative Shrinkage-Thresholding Algorithm (ISTA) for optimizing a general $$ norm CS reconstruction model. To cast ISTA into deep network form, we develop an effective strategy to solve the proximal mapping associated with the sparsity-inducing regularizer using nonlinear transforms. All the parameters in ISTA-Net (e.g. nonlinear transforms, shrinkage thresholds, step sizes, etc.) are learned end-to-end, rather than being hand-crafted. Moreover, considering that the residuals of natural images are more compressible, an enhanced version of ISTA-Net in the residual domain, dubbed ISTA-Net+, is derived to further improve CS reconstruction. Extensive CS experiments demonstrate that the proposed ISTA-Nets outperform existing state-of-the-art optimization-based and network-based CS methods by large margins, while maintaining fast computational speed. Our source codes are available: http://jianzhang.tech/projects/ISTA-Net.
••01 Aug 2014
TL;DR: The current comprehensive survey provides an overview of most of these published works by grouping them in a broad taxonomy, and common issues in super-resolution algorithms, such as imaging models and registration algorithms, optimization of the cost functions employed, dealing with color information, improvement factors, assessment of super- resolution algorithms, and the most commonly employed databases are discussed.
Abstract: Super-resolution, the process of obtaining one or more high-resolution images from one or more low-resolution observations, has been a very attractive research topic over the last two decades. It has found practical applications in many real-world problems in different fields, from satellite and aerial imaging to medical image processing, to facial image analysis, text image analysis, sign and number plates reading, and biometrics recognition, to name a few. This has resulted in many research papers, each developing a new super-resolution algorithm for a specific purpose. The current comprehensive survey provides an overview of most of these published works by grouping them in a broad taxonomy. For each of the groups in the taxonomy, the basic concepts of the algorithms are first explained and then the paths through which each of these groups have evolved are given in detail, by mentioning the contributions of different authors to the basic concepts of each group. Furthermore, common issues in super-resolution algorithms, such as imaging models and registration algorithms, optimization of the cost functions employed, dealing with color information, improvement factors, assessment of super-resolution algorithms, and the most commonly employed databases are discussed.
TL;DR: Solid Earth geoscience is a field that has very large set of observations, which are ideal for analysis with machine-learning methods, and how these methods can be applied to solid Earth datasets is reviewed.
Abstract: BACKGROUND The solid Earth, oceans, and atmosphere together form a complex interacting geosystem. Processes relevant to understanding Earth’s geosystem behavior range in spatial scale from the atomic to the planetary, and in temporal scale from milliseconds to billions of years. Physical, chemical, and biological processes interact and have substantial influence on this complex geosystem, and humans interact with it in ways that are increasingly consequential to the future of both the natural world and civilization as the finiteness of Earth becomes increasingly apparent and limits on available energy, mineral resources, and fresh water increasingly affect the human condition. Earth is subject to a variety of geohazards that are poorly understood, yet increasingly impactful as our exposure grows through increasing urbanization, particularly in hazard-prone areas. We have a fundamental need to develop the best possible predictive understanding of how the geosystem works, and that understanding must be informed by both the present and the deep past. This understanding will come through the analysis of increasingly large geo-datasets and from computationally intensive simulations, often connected through inverse problems. Geoscientists are faced with the challenge of extracting as much useful information as possible and gaining new insights from these data, simulations, and the interplay between the two. Techniques from the rapidly evolving field of machine learning (ML) will play a key role in this effort. ADVANCES The confluence of ultrafast computers with large memory, rapid progress in ML algorithms, and the ready availability of large datasets place geoscience at the threshold of dramatic progress. We anticipate that this progress will come from the application of ML across three categories of research effort: (i) automation to perform a complex prediction task that cannot easily be described by a set of explicit commands; (ii) modeling and inverse problems to create a representation that approximates numerical simulations or captures relationships; and (iii) discovery to reveal new and often unanticipated patterns, structures, or relationships. Examples of automation include geologic mapping using remote-sensing data, characterizing the topology of fracture systems to model subsurface transport, and classifying volcanic ash particles to infer eruptive mechanism. Examples of modeling include approximating the viscoelastic response for complex rheology, determining wave speed models directly from tomographic data, and classifying diverse seismic events. Examples of discovery include predicting laboratory slip events using observations of acoustic emissions, detecting weak earthquake signals using similarity search, and determining the connectivity of subsurface reservoirs using groundwater tracer observations. OUTLOOK The use of ML in solid Earth geosciences is growing rapidly, but is still in its early stages and making uneven progress. Much remains to be done with existing datasets from long-standing data sources, which in many cases are largely unexplored. Newer, unconventional data sources such as light detection and ranging (LiDAR), fiber-optic sensing, and crowd-sourced measurements may demand new approaches through both the volume and the character of information that they present. Practical steps could accelerate and broaden the use of ML in the geosciences. Wider adoption of open-science principles such as open source code, open data, and open access will better position the solid Earth community to take advantage of rapid developments in ML and artificial intelligence. Benchmark datasets and challenge problems have played an important role in driving progress in artificial intelligence research by enabling rigorous performance comparison and could play a similar role in the geosciences. Testing on high-quality datasets produces better models, and benchmark datasets make these data widely available to the research community. They also help recruit expertise from allied disciplines. Close collaboration between geoscientists and ML researchers will aid in making quick progress in ML geoscience applications. Extracting maximum value from geoscientific data will require new approaches for combining data-driven methods, physical modeling, and algorithms capable of learning with limited, weak, or biased labels. Funding opportunities that target the intersection of these disciplines, as well as a greater component of data science and ML education in the geosciences, could help bring this effort to fruition. The list of author affiliations is available in the full article online.