Bio: Amirhossein Arzani is an academic researcher. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 2 citations.
01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: Arzani et al. as mentioned in this paper investigated the role of hemodynamics in AAA progression, complex vectorial wall shear stress (WSS) patterns, and near-wall transport in abdominal aorta.
Abstract: Author(s): Arzani, Amirhossein | Advisor(s): Shadden, shawn C. | Abstract: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a permanent local enlargement of the abdominal aorta. Complex anatomies, presence of side branches, and pulsatility of blood flow creates a complex chaotic flow field in AAAs. The progression of AAA can lead to rupture, which is one of the leading causes of death in the elderly. In this study, the flow topology in AAAs, role of hemodynamics in AAA progression, complex vectorial wall shear stress (WSS) patterns, and near-wall transport in AAAs were investigated.Patient-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to obtain blood flow information. Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) were computed to study the flow physics. The utility of these structures in studying chaotic mixing and transport, flow separation, and vortex wall interaction was demonstrated in different patients. The effect of exercise on flow topology and quantitative mixing was evaluated. The evolution of a systolic vortex formed in the proximal region, strongly influenced the flow topology in the aneurysms. Intraluminal thrombus (ILT) deposition and lumen progression were quantified in several patients using magnetic resonance imaging over a 2--3 year followup. Point-wise spatial correlation of hemodynamic parameters to ILT deposition, revealed a negative correlation between oscillatory shear stress and ILT deposition. This was attributed to persistence recirculation, which can lead to unidirectional backward WSS. Complex vectorial variations in WSS was studied. Namely, variations in WSS magnitude, direction, and vector in space and time were quantified and compared. Several new WSS measures were introduced to better quantify WSS vectorial variations. The concept of Lagrangian wall shear stress structures (WSS LCS) was introduced. WSS was scaled to obtain a first order representation of near-wall velocity. Tracers representing biochemicals in thin concentration boundary layers were tracked on the aneurysm surface based on the WSS vector field. Formation of coherent structures from WSS tracers were shown. The WSS LCS organize near-wall transport in high Schmidt number flows and could be used to predict regions of high near-wall stagnation and concentration. A wall shear stress exposure time (WSSET) measure was introduced to quantify near-wall stagnation and concentration. Excellent agreement between WSSET and surface concentration obtained from 3D continuum mass transport was obtained. Finally, the important roles that WSS fixed points play in cardiovascular flows was discussed.
TL;DR: It is shown that chaotic advection is inherent to flow through all types of porous media, from granular and packed media to fractured and open networks, and has significant implications for the description of transport, mixing, chemical reaction and biological activity in porous media.
Abstract: We show that chaotic advection is inherent to flow through all types of porous media, from granular and packed media to fractured and open networks. The basic topological complexity inherent to all porous media gives rise to chaotic flow dynamics under steady flow conditions, where fluid deformation local to stagnation points imparts a 3D fluid mechanical analog of the baker's map. The ubiquitous nature of chaotic advection has significant implications for the description of transport, mixing, chemical reaction and biological activity in porous media.
01 Jan 1995
TL;DR: In this article, heat and mass transfer in the recirculation region of a pipe under steady and pulsatile conditions were studied under uniform and parabolic entrance velocity profiles and the results demonstrate the complexity of separation flows and identify characteristic regions of high and low heat/mass transfer.
Abstract: Abstract Heat and mass transfer phenomena were studied in the sudden expansion region of a pipe under steady and pulsatile conditions. The Prandtl number was varied from 100 to 12 000 and the flow was characterized for both uniform and parabolic entrance velocity profiles. A uniform velocity profile was used for pulsatile flow. It was found that heat transfer in the recirculation region was maximal near the area where wall shear was minimal. Blunting of the inlet profile caused the point of maximum heat transfer to move upstream. There was a nonlinear effect of Prandtl number on heat transfer which plateaued for Pr > 10 3 . The wall shear rate in the separation zone varied markedly with pulsatile flows, but the wall heat transfer remained relatively constant. The time-averaged pulsatile heat transfer at the wall was approximately the same as with steady flow with the mean Reynolds number. However, the isotherms within the pulsatile flow were markedly different from steady flow. The results demonstrate the complexity of separation flows and identify characteristic regions of high and low heat/mass transfer for high Prandtl/Schmidt pulsatile flow.