Bio: Amit Dhir is an academic researcher from Thapar University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Diesel fuel & Diesel engine. The author has an hindex of 21, co-authored 80 publications receiving 1110 citations.
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research1, King Abdulaziz University2, Yogi Vemana University3, Banaras Hindu University4, University of Kashmir5, Bose Institute6, Indian Statistical Institute7, Thapar University8, Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology9, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research10, American Hotel & Lodging Educational Institute11, Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences12, Central University of Rajasthan13, North East Institute of Science and Technology14, National Institute of Oceanography, India15, Doon University16
TL;DR: In this article, in-situ and space-borne observations reveal an extremely high loading of particulates over the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP), all year around, since the pollutants undergo long range transport from their source regions to the Indian mainland, leading to an outflow of continental pollutants into the Bay of Bengal (BoB), and a net advection of desert dust aerosols into the IGP from southwest Asia (SW-Asia), northwest India (NW-India) and northern Africa (N-Africa) during summers.
Abstract: Both in-situ and space-borne observations reveal an extremely high loading of particulates over the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP), all year around. With a burgeoning population and combustion sources (fossil fuels (FFs) and biofuels (BFs)) in close proximity to each other, the IGP is widely regarded as a hotspot for anthropogenic aerosol emission in South Asia. The deteriorating air quality over this region, particularly during winters, is a cause of major concern, since the pollutants undergo long range transport from their source regions to the Indo-Himalayan Range (IHR), Bay of Bengal (BoB) and other remote areas, polluting their pristine atmospheric conditions. Seasonal reversal in winds over the Indian mainland leads to an outflow of continental pollutants into the BoB during winters and a net advection of desert dust aerosols into the IGP from southwest Asia (SW-Asia), northwest India (NW-India) and northern Africa (N-Africa) during summers. Through the course of this study, four observational campaigns were conducted for sampling the ambient PM2.5 and PM10 during winter and summer seasons of 2014–2015, at multiple locations (18 sites) in the IGP, IHR, and semi-arid/arid sites towards their south and west, in order to accurately determine the inter-seasonal and inter-annual changes in the aerosol loading at the sites. We have also utilized data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on-board Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra satellite for estimating the columnar Aerosol Optical Depth at 550 nm (AOD550) and data from EOS Terra and Aqua satellites for discovering openly burning fires in the vicinity of sampling sites. Determination of the major source regions and key transport pathways during both seasons have also been attempted, using back-trajectory cluster analyses, as well as receptor models such as PSCF and CWT.
TL;DR: In this article, a brief overview of the developments of various Ca-based catalysts derived from waste materials as an efficient catalyst for biodiesel production with significant yield is presented, where the waste materials employed as heterogeneous catalysts have an abundance of natural Ca content and they have high catalyst activity and selectivity.
Abstract: Recent studies on the exploration of eco-friendly approach by utilizing large-scale waste materials as potential catalyst in biodiesel production have attracted much attention. The development of heterogeneous catalysts especially from calcium has gained much awareness due to the large availability of calcium-rich waste materials and their corresponding high catalytic activity in the transesterification of oil. Most of the waste materials employed as heterogeneous catalysts have an abundance of natural Ca content and they have high catalyst activity and selectivity despite being environment-friendly and cost-effective. Heterogeneous catalysts with high activity can be produced from Ca based waste materials when calcined at high temperatures. This review gives a brief overview of the developments of various Ca based catalysts derived from waste materials as an efficient catalyst for biodiesel production with significant yield. Industrial wastes (red mud, slag, ash) and biological catalysts (chicken eggshells, mollusk shells, animal bones) possess enormous potential towards developing an economical catalyst and subsequently, low-cost biodiesel generation. However, future challenges await a better utilization of useless wastes into a useful resource to satisfy human needs.
TL;DR: The use of Fenton applications as a pre-treatment resulted in a significant enhancement in the BOD5/COD ratio validating the production of easily degradable metabolites or secondary products.
Abstract: The pharmaceutical wastewater of different organic loads i.e. high (HSW) and low strength wastewater (LSW) were collected from the bulk pharmaceutical industry and subjected to different applications of Fenton’s treatment followed by subsequent biological treatment. For both the HSW and LSW, applications of Fenton such as, dark-Fenton (DF), solar driven photo-Fenton (PF) and electro-Fenton (EF) were utilized as pre-treatment technologies to improve the biodegradability and reduce the organic load of wastewater by combine oxidation and coagulation. The operational parameters like pH, hydrogen peroxide dosage and iron concentration were optimized in case of DF and PF processes, whereas in case of EF process, applied voltage and hydrogen peroxide dosage were optimized to make water biocompatible for subsequent biological degradation. The use of Fenton applications as a pre-treatment resulted in a significant enhancement in the BOD5/COD ratio validating the production of easily degradable metabolites or secondary products. Overall results indicated that among the utilized Fenton technologies, pre-treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater with PF lead to better COD and TOC removal efficiency with subsequent biological degradation when compared to DF and EF pre-treatment. Overall COD removal efficiency of the combined PF and biological treatment was around 84% for LSW and 82% for HSW. Conclusively, it can be established that combined Fenton applications as pretreatment technology and biological treatment is more effective approach in comparison to single stage oxidation either by Fenton or biological treatment. Cytotoxicity assessment revealed that complete detoxification of wastewaters were achieved indicating that hybrid treatment technology of Fenton’s and biological treatment did not exhibited any toxicity against the selected microbes.
TL;DR: In this article, an attempt has been made to introduce exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) under compressed natural gas (CNG) fuelled diesel engine using Jatropha biodiesel (B20) blend as pilot fuel.
Abstract: Dwindling fossil fuel resources and deteriorating ambient air quality has mandate the search for suitable alternative fuels for diesel engine. Dual fuel engines show remarkable engine performance characteristics at higher engine loads but suffer from high NOx-smoke opacity emissions trade-off. In the present study, an attempt has been made to introduce exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) under compressed natural gas (CNG) fuelled diesel engine using Jatropha biodiesel (B20) blend as pilot fuel. Experimental investigations were carried out in a single cylinder direct injection compression ignition engine, which was suitably modified to operate under dual fuel mode along with EGR. Comparative analysis was made on the basis of combustion, performance and emissions characteristics at different engine operating loads for fossil diesel, CNG and biodiesel blend (B20) with and without EGR. It was evident from the experimental investigations that dual fuel mode with EGR improved the NOx-smoke emission trade-off at higher engine loads without deteriorating engine combustion and performance characteristics.
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of variable compression ratio (16:1, 17:1 and 18:1) on various engine characteristics by fuelling 20% palm biodiesel blending compression ignition engine was investigated.
Abstract: Limited fossil fuel reserves led to focus on alternatives fuels for combustion engines. Several studies reported optimal (20%) biodiesel blend for utility in compression ignition engine at constant compression ratio. Literature lacks on the study of palm-based biodiesel in blended form at varying engine compression ratios. In this study, an initiative was undertaken to study the effect of variable compression ratio (16:1, 17:1 and 18:1) on various engine characteristics by fuelling 20% palm biodiesel blending compression ignition engine. The ignition delay period decreased, whereas the peak cylinder pressure and brake thermal efficiency increased with increase in the engine compression ratio from 16:1 to 18:1. At 3.5 bar bmep, brake thermal efficiency values were observed to be 28.9, 30.8 and 33.8% at 16:1, 17:1 and 18:1 CRs, respectively in B20 fuel. Moreover, increasing compression ratio from 16:1 to 18:1, the average reduction in emissions of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and smoke opacity were observed to be 47.8, 41.0 and 35.7%, respectively whereas, oxides of nitrogen emissions increased by 41.1%. Thus, it is inferred that B20 fuel performed well at high engine compression ratio.
01 Jan 2004
TL;DR: In this paper, the effects of subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics and disinfectants on environmental bacteria, especially with respect to resistance, are investigated and the impact on the frequency of resistance transfer by antibacterials present in the environment is questionable.
Abstract: Antibiotics, disinfectants and bacteria resistant to them have been detected in environmental compartments such as waste water, surface water, ground water, sediments and soils. Antibiotics are released into the environment after their use in medicine, veterinary medicine and their employment as growth promoters in animal husbandry, fish farming and other fields. There is increasing concern about the growing resistance of pathogenic bacteria in the environment, and their ecotoxic effects. Increasingly, antibiotic resistance is seen as an ecological problem. This includes both the ecology of resistance genes and that of the resistant bacteria themselves. Little is known about the effects of subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics and disinfectants on environmental bacteria, especially with respect to resistance. According to the present state of our knowledge, the impact on the frequency of resistance transfer by antibacterials present in the environment is questionable. The input of resistant bacteria into the environment seems to be an important source of resistance in the environment. The possible impact of resistant bacteria on the environment is not yet known. Further research into these issues is warranted.
01 Apr 2012
TL;DR: This article used a series of climate model experiments to investigate the South Asian monsoon response to natural and anthropogenic forcings, and found that the observed precipitation decrease can be attributed mainly to human-influenced aerosol emissions.
Abstract: Changes in monsoon rainfall are caused by human-produced aerosols slowing the tropical atmospheric circulation. Observations show that South Asia underwent a widespread summertime drying during the second half of the 20th century, but it is unclear whether this trend was due to natural variations or human activities. We used a series of climate model experiments to investigate the South Asian monsoon response to natural and anthropogenic forcings. We find that the observed precipitation decrease can be attributed mainly to human-influenced aerosol emissions. The drying is a robust outcome of a slowdown of the tropical meridional overturning circulation, which compensates for the aerosol-induced energy imbalance between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. These results provide compelling evidence of the prominent role of aerosols in shaping regional climate change over South Asia.
TL;DR: In this paper, the state of the art in Sulfate radical-based advanced Oxidation processes (SR-AOPs) application for industrial wastewater treatment is presented, and an integrated presentation of the dominant pathways towards IWW decontamination is discussed.
Abstract: Over the last years, Sulfate Radical-based Advanced Oxidation Processes (SR-AOPs) have received considerable attention due to their high versatility and efficacy in disinfection and decontamination. Their advantages over classical AOPs, the generation of sulfate radicals ( S O 4 ∙ - ) from peroxydisulfate (PDS, S 2 O 8 2 - ), or joint sulfate and hydroxyl radicals ( H O ∙ ) production from peroxymonosulfate (PMS, H S O 5 - ) and their abundant activation methods have facilitated their introduction into various remediation and effluent decontamination processes. In this review, we present the advances in the field of industrial wastewater (IWW) treatment by SR-AOPs, by activation of either PMS or PDS via any suitable method, in homogeneous or heterogeneous (photo)catalytic processes. This review aims to present the state of the art in SR-AOPs application for IWW treatment, and act as a guideline of the field advances, summarize the previous application experiences, hence avoid research pitfalls and empower better IWW treatment practices. After an integrated presentation of the dominant pathways towards IWW decontamination, we discuss the SR-AOPs application in the treatment of effluents such as landfill leachate, petrochemical and pharmaceutical WW, pulp or paper industry effluents, textile and winery WW, as well as less studied processes such as coking, olive mill or soil washing effluents. Finally, the advantages and shortcomings of SR-AOPs for IWW treatment, as well as their perspectives are discussed.
TL;DR: The main direction in the future of AOPs are the modification of catalysts and the optimization of operating parameters, with the challenges focusing on industrial applications.
Abstract: With the development of industrial society, organic wastewater produced by industrial manufacturing has caused many environmental problems. The vast majority of organic pollutants in water bodies are persistent in the environment, posing a threat to human and animal health. Therefore, efficient treatment methods for highly concentrated organic wastewater are urgently needed. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are widely noticed in the area of treating organic wastewater. Compared with other chemical methods, AOPs have the characteristics of high oxidation efficiency and no secondary pollution. In this paper, the mechanisms, advantages, and limitations of AOPs are comprehensively reviewed. Besides, the basic principles of combining different AOPs to enhance the treatment efficiency are described. Furthermore, the applications of AOPs in various wastewater treatments, such as oily wastewater, dyeing wastewater, pharmaceutical wastewater, and landfill leachate, are also presented. Finally, we conclude that the main direction in the future of AOPs are the modification of catalysts and the optimization of operating parameters, with the challenges focusing on industrial applications.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors reviewed the research undertaken on the production and application of activated carbon as an adsorbent from olive stones for wastewater treatment, and the future prospects of these materials as adsorbents were discussed.
Abstract: Olive stones have been widely used as a renewable energy biowaste source. As they are rich in elemental carbon (40–45 wt%), much research focussed on effectively converting olive stones, as precursors, into activated carbon adsorbents. However, only a few studies have concentrated on summarising the various techniques used to produce activated carbon from olive stone. This article reviews the research undertaken on the production and application of activated carbon as an adsorbent from olive stones for wastewater treatment. Various physical, chemical and physico-chemical treatments to remove heavy metals, organics and dyes are discussed, and the resultant adsorption capacities are reported. In several cases, very high adsorption capacities are recorded. Finally, the future prospects of these materials as adsorbents are discussed, and after further development work, olive stone-derived activated carbons have great potential especially in the area of organic polluted wastewaters.