Bio: Amit Kumar is an academic researcher from Case Western Reserve University. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Flammability limit & Combustion. The author has an hindex of 4, co-authored 5 publication(s) receiving 89 citation(s).
01 Mar 2003-Combustion and Flame
TL;DR: In this paper, a two-dimensional, opposed-flow, flame-spread model, with flame radiation, has been formulated and solved numerically, and a comparison of flammability limits and flame-spreading rates between opposing and concurrent spreading flames are made; both models contain the same assumptions and properties.
Abstract: Flame-spread phenomena over thin solids are investigated for purely forced-opposing and concurrent flows. A two-dimensional, opposed-flow, flame-spread model, with flame radiation, has been formulated and solved numerically. In the first part of the paper, flammability limits and spread rates in opposed flow are presented, using oxygen percentage, free-stream velocity, and flow-entrance length as parameters. The comparison of the flammability boundaries and spread-rate curves for two different entrance lengths exhibits a cross-over phenomenon. Shorter entrance length results in higher spread rates and a lower oxygen-extinction limit in low free-stream velocities, but lower spread rates and a higher oxygen-extinction limit in high free-stream velocities. The entrance length affects the effective flow rate that the flame sees at the base region. This affects the radiation loss and gas residence-time in an opposing way to cause the cross-over. Radiation also affects the energy balance on the solid surface and is in part responsible for the solid-fuel non-burn-out phenomenon. In the second part of the paper, a comparison of flammability limits and flame-spreading rates between opposing and concurrent spreading flames are made; both models contain the same assumptions and properties. While the spread rate in concurrent spread increases linearly with free-stream velocity, the spread rate in opposed flow varies with free-stream velocity in a non-monotonic manner, with a peak rate at an intermediate free-stream velocity. At a given free-stream velocity, the limiting oxygen limits are lower for concurrent spread, except in the very low free-stream-velocity regime, where the spreading flame may be sustainable in opposed mode and not in concurrent mode. The cross-over disappears if the two spread modes are compared using relative flow velocities with respect to the flames rather than using free-stream velocities with respect to the laboratory.
01 Jul 2006-Combustion and Flame
TL;DR: In this paper, a two-dimensional numerical model was used to study the flame stabilization and extinction characteristics over a thick model solid fuel, which resembles a specimen burning near extinction limit in an LOI testing procedure.
Abstract: A preventive approach to fire safety is proper material selection based on the flammability characteristics. One such measure of flammability is the limiting oxygen index (LOI). This is a commonly used numerical flammability index for relative grading and selecting materials. The test measures the extinction limit of a downward spreading flame over a finite size (rectangular slab or rod) fuel specimen. In this work, a two-dimensional numerical model was used to study the flame stabilization and extinction characteristics over a thick model solid fuel, which resembles a specimen burning near extinction limit in an LOI testing procedure. The computations were preformed for a mixed buoyant-forced-flow environment prevailing in the LOI test at normal gravity. At sufficiently high oxygen level (far away from flame extinction limit) the flame is anchored on the sides of the fuel slab (side-stabilized flame), but as the oxygen level is reduced, at a certain value the flame stabilization point abruptly shifts from the sides of the specimen to the wake region (wake flame). The structural details of these two modes of flame stabilization are discussed. The computations also show that the shift in the flame-anchoring position with oxygen level exhibits hysteresis; i.e., multiple flame solutions may exist for a given environmental condition of flow and oxygen. The flame extinction limits and flame-shift limits (side-stabilized flame to wake flame and vice versa) in ambient oxygen percentage are presented for different forced-flow velocities. Over the velocity range studied here, the side-stabilized flame (similar to flames over of thin fuels) becomes less flammable (higher LOI) at higher velocity, whereas the wake-stabilized flame becomes more flammable (lower LOI) with increase in forced-flow velocity. To understand the implication of this earth-based measurement to material selection for space application, additional computations were performed for pure forced-flow environment in zero gravity. Stabilization and extinction behavior of the flames at normal gravity are compared with those in zero gravity. The computations in a pure forced-flow environment show that the two modes are also present in a zero-gravity environment but only above certain minimum flow velocity. Below this velocity only the single flaming solution was obtained. In the present computations, the LOI values at zero gravity were lower than those at normal gravity. For zero gravity the LOI based on side-stabilized flame (for thin fuels) shows a nonmonotonic behavior: there is a minimum LOI which for the present set of property and kinetic parameter values occurs at a forced velocity of about 3–5 cm/s. For zero gravity the LOI based on wake flame extinction decreases rapidly with flow velocity for small velocities but with further increase in velocity the LOI value stays approximately constant.
TL;DR: In this article, a detailed two-dimensional laminar flame spread model over a thin solid is solved in both a normal gravity downward spread configuration and in a microgravity quiescent atmosphere configuration.
Abstract: A detailed, two-dimensional, laminar flame spread model over a thin solid is solved in both a normal gravity downward spread configuration and in a microgravity quiescent atmosphere configuration. The radiation transfer equation is solved using discrete ordinates methods. While flame radiation plays only a secondary role in normal gravity spread, it is crucial in microgravity By using the solid fuel total emittance and total absorptance as parameters, systematic computations have been performed to isolate the roles of flame radiative loss to the ambient, absorption of flame radiation by the solid and solid emission
01 Aug 2003
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explore the gap in the literature between studies of material flammability and flame spread phenomena in normal-gravity and those conducted in the microgravity environment, with or without forced flows.
Abstract: The premise of this research effort has been to begin exploring the gap in the literature between studies of material flammability and flame spread phenomena in normal-gravity and those conducted in the microgravity environment, with or without forced flows. From a fundamental point of view, flame spreading in upward (concurrent) buoyant flow is considerably different from concurrent forced flow. The flow accelerates throughout the length of the buoyant flame bringing the streamlines and the flame closer to the fuel surface and strengthening the interaction between the flame and fuel. Forced flows are diverted around the flame and away from the fuel surface, except where the flow might be constrained by a finite duct. The differences may be most clearly felt as the atmospheric conditions, viz. pressure or oxygen content, approach the flammability limit. From a more practical point of view, flame spreading and material flammability behavior have not been studied under the partial gravity conditions that are the natural state in space exploration destinations such as the Moon and Mars. This effort constitutes the beginning of the research needed to engineer fire safety provisions for such future missions. In this program we have performed partial-gravity experiments (from 0.1 to 1 g/g(sub Earth)) considering both upward and downward flame spread over thin solid fuels aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft. In those tests, the atmospheric pressure and the fuel sample width were varied. Steady flame spread rates and approximate extinction boundaries were determined. Flame images were recorded using video cameras and two-dimensional fuel surface temperature distributions were determined using an IR camera. These results are available, and complement our earlier work in downward spread in partial gravity varying oxygen content. In conjunction with the experiment, three-dimensional models of flame spreading in buoyant flow have been developed. Some of the computed results on upward spreading have been presented. A derivative three-dimensional model of downward spreading has been developed. It is currently being used to evaluate the standard limiting oxygen index (LOI) measuring device and its potential performance in different gravity levels.
01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: In this article, the authors propose a novel approach to solve the problem of homonymity in homophily, and propose a solution to homophase-based homophasing.
Abstract: x Chapter
01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: In this paper, the foundations of materials science and engineering is available in a book collection, and an online access to it is set as public so you can download it instantly, and this collection hosts in multiple locations, allowing you to get the most less latency time to download any of our books like this one.
Abstract: foundations of materials science and engineering is available in our book collection an online access to it is set as public so you can download it instantly. Our books collection hosts in multiple locations, allowing you to get the most less latency time to download any of our books like this one. Kindly say, the foundations of materials science and engineering is universally compatible with any devices to read.
TL;DR: A comprehensive survey of the literature in the area of numerical heat transfer (NHT) published between 2000 and 2009 has been conducted by as mentioned in this paper, where the authors conducted a comprehensive survey.
Abstract: A comprehensive survey of the literature in the area of numerical heat transfer (NHT) published between 2000 and 2009 has been conducted Due to the immenseness of the literature volume, the survey
TL;DR: A review of heat transfer literature published in 2004 in English language, including some translations of foreign language papers, is presented in this paper, where papers are grouped into subject-oriented sections and further divided into sub-fields.
Abstract: The present review covers the heat transfer literature published in 2004 in English language, including some translations of foreign language papers. Though extensive, some selection is necessary. Only articles published by a process of peer review in archival journals are reviewed. Papers are grouped into subject-oriented sections and further divided into sub-fields. Many papers deal with the fundamental science of heat transfer, including experimental, numerical and analytical work; others relate to applications or natural systems. In addition to reviewing journal articles, this Review also takes note of important conferences and meetings on heat transfer and related areas, major awards presented in 2004, and relevant books published in 2004.
01 Jan 2015
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors introduce fire safety standards for flammability evaluation of solid material intended for use in a spacecraft habitat, and the difference between the limiting value in microgravity and the indices given by the standard test methods on the ground is discussed.
Abstract: This paper introduces fire safety standards for flammability evaluation of solid material intended for use in a spacecraft habitat. Two types of existing standards include material evaluation by pass/fail criteria corresponding to Test 1 of NASA STD 6001B and evaluation by a flammability index such as maximum oxygen concentration (MOC) corresponding to the improved Test 1. The advantage of the latter is the wide applicability of the MOC index to different atmospheres in spacecraft. Additionally, the limiting oxygen index (LOI) method is introduced as a potential alternative index for the evaluation using the improved Test 1 method. When criteria based on an index such as MOC or LOI are applied for material screening, the discrepancy of the index to the actual flammability limit in microgravity such as minimum limiting oxygen concentration (MLOC) is essential information for guaranteeing fire safety in space because material flammability can be higher in microgravity. In this paper, the existing research on the effects of significant parameters on material flammability in microgravity are introduced, and the difference between the limiting value in microgravity and the indices given by the standard test methods on the ground is discussed. Finally, on-going efforts to develop estimation methods of material flammability in microgravity according to normal gravity tests are summarized.
01 Jan 2012