Ana Regina de Aguiar Dutra
Bio: Ana Regina de Aguiar Dutra is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Sustainability & Higher education. The author has an hindex of 5, co-authored 18 publications receiving 138 citations.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe a biodiesel production plant installed at Pinheira Beach in the State of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil and aim to discuss the environmental, social and economic impacts by analyzing the biodies production by life cycle assessment (LCA), relationship with the emission of greenhouse gases.
Abstract: Concern in relation to creating environmental protection policies is increasing, particularly with regard to the reuse of waste for power generation. In this context, biodiesel production from waste cooking oils could play an important role. Biodiesel is a biofuel that can be produced from saturated fatty raw material discarded by restaurants, such as oils and fats used for cooking processes. This paper describes a biodiesel production plant installed at Pinheira Beach in the State of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil and aims to discuss the environmental, social and economic impacts by analyzing the biodiesel production by life cycle assessment (LCA), relationship with the emission of greenhouse gases. The plant is run by an association and is aimed at promoting the recycling of waste cooking oil from restaurants and residences in the area and, at the same time, enables the continuity of artisanal fisheries in the region. The transesterification production process was used to convert waste cooking oils into biodiesel using basic catalysis in the presence of methanol. A batch system with the capacity to produce 200 L of biodiesel per day was adopted. The data obtained for the biodiesel produced at the plant were 879.2 kg m −3 density, 495.74 mg kg −1 water content, 94.38% ester content, and 1.5 mg.kg −1 sodium plus potassium. Related to the Life Cycle Assessment the results demonstrate that the category that most contributes to the emissions generated in biodiesel production process is the collection stage with 92.10% contribution, presenting a significant difference to the productions stage which contributed 7.9%. The plant provides environmental, social and economic gains for the community, for instance, increased income for the associates and fishermen, environmental education in schools, and cooking oil recycling opportunities.
TL;DR: In this article, the use of bacterial cellulose from the probiotic drinks from kombucha, for the manufacture of biotextiles for fashion industry is discussed, and a discussion is also presented, relating the circular economy concept to the UN Sustainable Development Goals, in order to understand which goals can be achieved with this approach.
Abstract: In the context of current environmental, social and economic issues, it is imperative to perform more in-depth studies on waste management and the life cycle of a product. Thus, the concept of circular economy, aimed at transforming traditional patterns of production and economic growth, is extremely important. One way to mitigate negative environmental impacts that is consistent with a circular economic system is to encourage interdisciplinarity between sectors, that is, one production sector can provide a function for waste from another. In this context, this article gathers scientific information on two sectors relevant to the global economy (textiles and food), with the aim of reusing waste from the food industry to manufacture a new textile product with added value. Specifically, the focus is on the use of bacterial cellulose from the probiotic drinks from kombucha, for the manufacture of biotextiles for fashion industry. A discussion is also presented, relating the circular economy concept to the UN Sustainable Development Goals, in order to understand which goals can be achieved with this approach.
TL;DR: An alternative and innovative methodology to transform waste, frying oil in a potential energy source, the biodiesel, using the corona discharge plasma technology, which offers advantages such as acceleration of the esterification reaction, easy separation of the biod diesel and the elimination of waste generation.
Abstract: This article aims to describe an alternative and innovative methodology to transform waste, frying oil in a potential energy source, the biodiesel. The biodiesel was produced from fatty acids, using a waste product of the food industry as the raw material. The methodology to be described is the corona discharge plasma technology, which offers advantages such as acceleration of the esterification reaction, easy separation of the biodiesel and the elimination of waste generation. The best conditions were found to be an oil/methanol molar ratio of 6:1, ambient temperature (25 °C) and reaction time of 110 min and 30 mL of sample. The acid value indicates the content of free fatty acids in the biodiesel and the value obtained in this study was 0.43 mg KOH/g. Peaks corresponding to octadecadienoic acid methyl ester, octadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecenoic acid methyl ester, from the biodiesel composition, were identified using GC-MS. A major advantage of this process is that the methyl ester can be obtained in the absence of chemical catalysts and without the formation of the co-product (glycerin).
TL;DR: A method for the treatment of spent batteries using thermal plasma technology is proposed herein and showed that the most efficient reactor was that with the DC transferred arc plasma torch and quartzite sand positively influenced by the vitrification during the pyrolysis of the electrolyte paste obtain from batteries.
Abstract: The growth in the use of wireless devices, notebooks and other electronic products has led to an ever increasing demand for batteries, leading to these products being commonly found in inappropriate locations, with adverse effects on the environment and human health. Due to political pressure and according to the environmental legislation which regulates the destination of spent batteries, in several countries the application of reverse logistics to hazardous waste is required. Thus, some processes have been developed with the aim of providing an appropriate destination for these products. In this context, a method for the treatment of spent batteries using thermal plasma technology is proposed herein. The efficiency of the method was tested through the determination of parameters, such as total organic carbon, moisture content and density, as well as analysis by atomic absorption spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray fluorescence using samples before and after inertization. The value obtained for the density was 19.15%. The TOC results indicated 8.05% of C in the batteries prior to pyrolisis and according to the XRF analysis Fe, S, Mn and Zn were the most stable elements in the samples (highest peaks). The efficiency of the paste inertization was 97% for zinc and 99.74% for manganese. The results also showed that the most efficient reactor was that with the DC transferred arc plasma torch and quartzite sand positively influenced by the vitrification during the pyrolysis of the electrolyte paste obtain from batteries.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide an analytical literature review based on searches carried out in four databases, for the period of 2015-2020, focusing on concepts about sustainability and new sustainable materials used for the production of textiles.
Abstract: The textile industry has one of the highest levels of employment around the world, but this is considered one of the most polluting activities. Researchers are therefore constantly looking for solutions and innovations that can mitigate the negative environmental impacts arising from this sector. This article provides an analytical literature review based on searches carried out in four databases, for the period of 2015–2020, focusing on concepts about sustainability and new sustainable materials used for the production of textiles. In the section “3. Concepts of sustainability and the new possibilities of materials for textiles”, the concepts for a more sustainable sector such as upcycling and the possibilities of new materials through the use of microorganisms and investment in smart textiles are discussed through the researched literature. Reinforcing in this way, how these analyzed contents can contribute to the future of the textile industry. A total of 75 research articles were found, published in 40 journals, which were grouped by subject: “Upcycling”, “Living Organisms and Biotechnology” and “Smart Textiles”, noting that the highest occurrence of articles related to the themes came from the United Kingdom and China, mainly in the period of 2019. Finally, the concepts and materials found and their coherence with the sustainable development goals established by the United Nations in the 2030 Agenda were analyzed.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors comprehensively reviewed biodiesel manufacturing techniques from natural oils and fats using conventional and advanced technologies with an in-depth state-of-the-art focus on the transesterification unit.
Abstract: Diesel engines are preferred over spark ignition counterparts for heavy-duty applications and power generation plants because of their higher efficiency, durability, and productivity. Currently, the research interests have been propelled towards renewable and sustainable diesel fuels such as biodiesel in order to address the environmental and energy security challenges associated with these energy systems. However, the most challenging issue concerning large-scale production of biodiesel is its relatively high cost over fossil-based diesel owing to high feedstock and manufacturing costs. Therefore, cost-effective and eco-friendly biodiesel production technologies should be necessarily developed and continuously improved in order to make this biofuel more competitive vs. its petroleum counterpart. Accordingly, this paper comprehensively reviews biodiesel manufacturing techniques from natural oils and fats using conventional and advanced technologies with an in-depth state-of-the-art focus on the utmost important unit, i.e., transesterification reactor. The effects of the main influential parameters on the transesterification process are first discussed in detail in order to better understand the mechanisms behind each reactor technology. Different transesterification reactors; e.g., tubular/plug-flow reactors, rotating reactors, simultaneous reaction-separation reactors, cavitational reactors, and microwave reactors are then scrutinized from the scientific and practical viewpoints. Merits and limitations of each reactor technology for biodiesel production are highlighted to guide future R&D on this topic. At the end of the paper, the sustainability aspects of biodiesel production are comprehensively discussed by emphasizing on the biorefinery concept utilizing waste-oriented oils.
01 Jan 2008
TL;DR: This review comprehensively discusses state-of-art knowledge about various sources of food waste generation, their utilization, and valorization by exploiting microorganisms to find a sustainable and eco-friendly solution for food waste management.
Abstract: With the changing life-style and rapid urbanization of global population, there is increased generation of food waste from various industrial, agricultural, and household sources. According to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), almost one-third of the total food produced annually is wasted. This poses serious concern as not only there is loss of rich resources; their disposal in environment causes concern too. Food waste is rich in organic, thus traditional approaches of land-filling and incineration could cause severe environmental and human health hazard by generating toxic gases. Thus, employing biological methods for the treatment of such waste offers a sustainable way for valorization. This review comprehensively discusses state-of-art knowledge about various sources of food waste generation, their utilization, and valorization by exploiting microorganisms. The use of microorganisms either aerobically or anaerobically could be a sustainable and eco-friendly solution for food waste management by generating biofuels, electrical energy, biosurfactants, bioplastics, biofertilizers, etc.
TL;DR: In this paper, the impact of higher alcohols, use of different raw materials for biodiesel preparation and effect of their composition on Oxidation Stability and Cold Flow properties was reviewed.
Abstract: Due to rapid industrialisation and use of advanced technologies there has been increase in the consumption of fossil fuels, especially petroleum. Increasing needs are reciprocally proportionate to diminishing reserves of coal and petroleum. So, the exaggerated to be fulfilled and to curb the problem of increasing fuel prices; researchers are putting their efforts to produce an alternative fuel from replenish able resources on large scale. Biodiesel itself is proving to be a reliable and competent competitor to non-renewable petroleum which is being produced from commonly accustomed plants for instancerapeseed, soybean, sunflower and palm etc. But, complication is that it becomes a problem for in-availability of these oils for foods. Now non-edible raw materials oils such as Pongamia, Jatropha, Mahua, Moringa seed oil etc. have been used to raise the standard of these oils and being produced to complete the level of petroleum and be proven as the best resources for biodiesel production in all approaches both technically and economically. In this paper emphasis has been laid down to review the impact of higher alcohols, use of different raw materials for biodiesel preparation and effect of their composition on Oxidation Stability and Cold Flow properties. Moreover, various production technologies used to produce biodiesel were also reviewed and comparison was done among them for better yield. Further, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of higher alcohols on biodiesel yield and its properties. The study concludes that oxidation stability depends upon unsaturation mainly linoleic acid and lenolenic acid. Moringa olifera , Moroccan frying oil, Schleichera oleosa L. oil, Moringa peregeria are prospective oils as per oxidative stability characteristics. In contrast to it, cold flow properties depend upon saturation and suggests that having more saturated fatty acids result in poor cold flow properties.
TL;DR: In this article, an overall experimental investigation on NOx emission based on combustion characteristics of biodiesel has been carried out, and a little decrease in NOx emissions was observed at low loads under low and medium engine speeds.
Abstract: A little decrease in NOx emission of biodiesel compared to diesel is observed at low loads under low and medium engine speeds. An overall experimental investigation on NOx emission based on combustion characteristics of biodiesel has been carried out. Negative effects of high viscosity and distillation temperature on the spray quality and homogeneity of air fuel mixture are clear at low loads under low and medium speeds. Brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and combustion temperature of biodiesel are lower than those of diesel, resulting in a lower level of NOx emission. With the increase of load, in-cylinder thermal condition and the injection pressure are improved, and with the increase of speed, air swirl movement is strengthened. Oxygenated biodiesel produces more reactive radicals than diesel, and these radicals will surely accelerate the combustion speed, improves the intensity of diffusion combustion, shortens the combustion duration and increase the BTE. Consequently, the diffusion combustion temperature, especially the peak combustion temperature of biodiesel is higher than that of diesel. On the whole, NOx emission of biodiesel is higher than that of diesel in most cases, except in the condition of low loads under low and medium speeds.