Bio: André Théron is an academic researcher from University of Perpignan. The author has contributed to research in topics: Schistosoma mansoni & Biomphalaria glabrata. The author has an hindex of 40, co-authored 110 publications receiving 4143 citations. Previous affiliations of André Théron include University of Montpellier & Centre national de la recherche scientifique.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The spatial fragmentation of parasites and the population genetics processes behind their diversification in an effort to bridge the micro- and macro-scales is focused on.
Abstract: Parasite speciation and host-parasite coevolution should be studied at both macroevolutionary and microevolutionary levels. Studies on a macroevolutionary scale provide an essential framework for understanding the origins of parasite lineages and the patterns of diversification. However, because coevolutionary interactions can be highly divergent across time and space, it is important to quantify and compare the phylogeographic variation in both the host and the parasite throughout their geographical range. Furthermore, to evaluate demographic parameters that are relevant to population genetics structure, such as effective population size and parasite transmission, parasite populations must be studied using neutral genetic markers. Previous emphasis on larger-scale studies means that the connection between microevolutionary and macroevolutionary events is poorly explored. In this article, we focus on the spatial fragmentation of parasites and the population genetics processes behind their diversification in an effort to bridge the micro- and macro-scales.
TL;DR: Cercariae, like miracidia, are non-parasitic larval stages implicated in the life cycle of all trematodes for the host-to-host parasite transmission.
Abstract: Cercariae, like miracidia, are non-parasitic larval stages implicated in the life cycle of all trematodes for the host-to-host parasite transmission. Almost all cercariae are free-living in the external environment. With a few exceptions (cercariae of Halipegus occidualis (Halipegidae) can live several months, Shostak & Esch, 1990a), cercariae have a short active life during which they do not feed, living on accumulated reserves. Most cercariae encyst as metacercariae in second intermediate hosts which are prey of the definitive host; in certain species, the interruption of the active life is achieved by an encystment in the external environment (or a simple immobile waiting strategy in a few species). In some two-host life cycles, the cercariae develop into adults after penetration (this is the case for various species causing human schistosomiasis). Some cercariae do not leave the mollusc which must then be ingested by the definitive host.
TL;DR: Results suggest that S. mansoni and E. caproni sporocysts develope a strong immune protection during the first hours of infection giving them enough time to build up a long lasting immune evasion strategy relying on molecular mimicry or immunosuppression, respectively.
Abstract: Schistosoma mansoni and Echinostoma caproni are two trematode species that use different strategies (mimicry and immunosuppression, respectively) to interfere with the snail innate immune system. Parasites excretory-secretory (ES) products have been shown to play a key role in these host-parasite immune interactions. However, they remain largely uncharacterized in larval trematodes. We developed a global proteomic approach to characterize the ES proteome of S. mansoni and E. caproni primary sporocysts. In ES products of both parasites, we found proteins involved in reactive oxygen species scavenging, glycolysis, signalling or calcium binding (superoxide dismutase Cu/Zn; glutathione S-transferase; aldo-keto-reductase; triose-phosphate isomerase; glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; aldolase, enolase, MICAL-like, calreticulin). According to their predicted functions, we propose a model in which these proteins (i) are involved in antioxidant activity, (ii) prevent hemocyte encapsulation process or (iii) favor invasion and migration of sporocysts in host tissues. These results suggest that S. mansoni and E. caproni sporocysts develope a strong immune protection during the first hours of infection giving them enough time to build up a long lasting immune evasion strategy relying on molecular mimicry or immunosuppression, respectively.
TL;DR: The comparison between genetic differentiation values inschistosomes and rats suggests that the efficacy of the schistosome rat‐mediated dispersal between transmission sites is lower than expected given the prevalence, parasitic load and migration rate of rats among sites.
Abstract: Characterizing host and parasite population genetic structure and estimating gene flow among populations is essential for understanding coevolutionary interactions between hosts and parasites. We examined the population genetic structure of the trematode Schistosoma mansoni and its two host species (the definitive host Rattus rattus and the intermediate host Biomphalaria glabrata) using microsatellite markers. Parasites were sampled from rats. The study was conducted in five sites of the Guadeloupe Island, Lesser Antilles. Mollusks display a pattern of isolation by distance whereas such a pattern is not found neither in schistosomes nor in rats. The comparison of the distribution of genetic variability in S. mansoni and its two host species strongly suggests that migration of parasites is principally determined by that of the vertebrate host in the marshy focus of Guadeloupe. However, the comparison between genetic differentiation values in schistosomes and rats suggests that the efficacy of the schistosome rat-mediated dispersal between transmission sites is lower than expected given the prevalence, parasitic load and migration rate of rats among sites. This could notably suggest that rat migration rate could be negatively correlated to the age or the infection status of individuals. Models made about the evolution of local adaptation in function of the dispersal rates of hosts and parasites suggest that rats and mollusks should be locally adapted to their parasites.
University of New Mexico1, University of Lagos2, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research3, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation4, Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research5, Bangor University6, University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras7, Sultan Qaboos University8, University of Carabobo9, Centre national de la recherche scientifique10, Kenya Medical Research Institute11, University of Ghana12, National Institute for Medical Research13, State University of Campinas14, The Open University of Tanzania15, University of Perpignan16, University of Nairobi17, Institut de recherche pour le développement18, Natural History Museum19, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute20
TL;DR: Schistosoma mansoni is the most widespread of the human-infecting schistosomes, present in 54 countries, predominantly in Africa, but also in Madagascar, the Arabian Peninsula, and the Neotropics as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Schistosoma mansoni is the most widespread of the human-infecting schistosomes, present in 54 countries, predominantly in Africa, but also in Madagascar, the Arabian Peninsula, and the Neotropics. Adult-stage parasites that infect humans are also occasionally recovered from baboons, rodents, and other mammals. Larval stages of the parasite are dependent upon certain species of freshwater snails in the genus Biomphalaria, which largely determine the parasite's geographical range. How S. mansoni genetic diversity is distributed geographically and among isolates using different hosts has never been examined with DNA sequence data. Here we describe the global phylogeography of S. mansoni using more than 2500 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 143 parasites collected in 53 geographically widespread localities. Considerable within-species mtDNA diversity was found, with 85 unique haplotypes grouping into five distinct lineages. Geographical separation, and not host use, appears to be the most important factor in the diversification of the parasite. East African specimens showed a remarkable amount of variation, comprising three clades and basal members of a fourth, strongly suggesting an East African origin for the parasite 0.30-0.43 million years ago, a time frame that follows the arrival of its snail host. Less but still substantial variation was found in the rest of Africa. A recent colonization of the New World is supported by finding only seven closely related New World haplotypes which have West African affinities. All Brazilian isolates have nearly identical mtDNA haplotypes, suggesting a founder effect from the establishment and spread of the parasite in this large country.
TL;DR: Preface to the Princeton Landmarks in Biology Edition vii Preface xi Symbols used xiii 1.
Abstract: Preface to the Princeton Landmarks in Biology Edition vii Preface xi Symbols Used xiii 1. The Importance of Islands 3 2. Area and Number of Speicies 8 3. Further Explanations of the Area-Diversity Pattern 19 4. The Strategy of Colonization 68 5. Invasibility and the Variable Niche 94 6. Stepping Stones and Biotic Exchange 123 7. Evolutionary Changes Following Colonization 145 8. Prospect 181 Glossary 185 References 193 Index 201
TL;DR: It is suggested that the natural selection against large insertion/deletion is so weak that a large amount of variation is maintained in a population.
Abstract: The relationship between the two estimates of genetic variation at the DNA level, namely the number of segregating sites and the average number of nucleotide differences estimated from pairwise comparison, is investigated. It is found that the correlation between these two estimates is large when the sample size is small, and decreases slowly as the sample size increases. Using the relationship obtained, a statistical method for testing the neutral mutation hypothesis is developed. This method needs only the data of DNA polymorphism, namely the genetic variation within population at the DNA level. A simple method of computer simulation, that was used in order to obtain the distribution of a new statistic developed, is also presented. Applying this statistical method to the five regions of DNA sequences in Drosophila melanogaster, it is found that large insertion/deletion (greater than 100 bp) is deleterious. It is suggested that the natural selection against large insertion/deletion is so weak that a large amount of variation is maintained in a population.
TL;DR: Credence is lent to the view that hybridization may provide the raw material for rapid adaptation and provide a simple explanation for niche divergence and phenotypic novelty often associated with hybrid lineages.
Abstract: The production of extreme or 'transgressive' phenotypes in segregating hybrid populations has been speculated to contribute to niche divergence of hybrid lineages. Here, we assess the frequency of transgressive segregation in hybrid populations, describe its genetic basis and discuss the factors that best predict its occurrence. From a survey of 171 studies that report phenotypic variation in segregating hybrid populations, we show that transgression is the rule rather than the exception. In fact, 155 of the 171 studies (91%) report at least one transgressive trait, and 44% of 1229 traits examined were transgressive. Transgression occurred most frequently in intraspecific crosses involving inbred, domesticated plant populations, and least frequently in interspecific crosses between outbred, wild animal species. Quantitative genetic studies of plant hybrids consistently point to the action of complementary genes as the primary cause of transgression, although overdominance and epistasis also contribute. Complementary genes appear to be common for most traits, with the possible exception of those with a history of disruptive selection. These results lend credence to the view that hybridization may provide the raw material for rapid adaptation and provide a simple explanation for niche divergence and phenotypic novelty often associated with hybrid lineages.
TL;DR: The consequences of the presence and magnitude of different costs during different phases of the dispersal process, and their internal organisation through covariation with other life‐history traits are synthesised with respect to potential consequences for species conservation and the need for development of a new generation of spatial simulation models.
Abstract: Dispersal costs can be classified into energetic, time, risk and opportunity costs and may be levied directly or deferred during departure, transfer and settlement. They may equally be incurred during life stages before the actual dispersal event through investments in special morphologies. Because costs will eventually determine the performance of dispersing individuals and the evolution of dispersal, we here provide an extensive review on the different cost types that occur during dispersal in a wide array of organisms, ranging from micro-organisms to plants, invertebrates and vertebrates. In general, costs of transfer have been more widely documented in actively dispersing organisms, in contrast to a greater focus on costs during departure and settlement in plants and animals with a passive transfer phase. Costs related to the development of specific dispersal attributes appear to be much more prominent than previously accepted. Because costs induce trade-offs, they give rise to covariation between dispersal and other life-history traits at different scales of organismal organisation. The consequences of (i) the presence and magnitude of different costs during different phases of the dispersal process, and (ii) their internal organisation through covariation with other life-history traits, are synthesised with respect to potential consequences for species conservation and the need for development of a new generation of spatial simulation models.
TL;DR: This work provides verifiable criteria to distinguish host races from other biotypes, and discusses applications of an understanding of host races in conservation and in managing adaptation by pests to control strategies, including those involving biological control or transgenic parasite-resistant plants.
Abstract: The existence of a continuous array of sympatric biotypes - from polymorphisms, through ecological or host races with increasing reproductive isolation, to good species - can provide strong evidence for a continuous route to sympatric speciation via natural selection. Host races in plant-feeding insects, in particular, have often been used as evidence for the probability of sympatric speciation. Here, we provide verifiable criteria to distinguish host races from other biotypes: in brief, host races are genetically differentiated, sympatric populations of parasites that use different hosts and between which there is appreciable gene flow. We recognize host races as kinds of species that regularly exchange genes with other species at a rate of more than ca. 1% per generation, rather than as fundamentally distinct taxa. Host races provide a convenient, although admittedly somewhat arbitrary intermediate stage along the speciation continuum. They are a heuristic device to aid in evaluating the probability of speciation by natural selection, particularly in sympatry. Speciation is thereby envisaged as having two phases: (i) the evolution of host races from within polymorphic, panmictic populations; and (ii) further reduction of gene flow between host races until the diverging populations can become generally accepted as species. We apply this criterion to 21 putative host race systems. Of these, only three are unambiguously classified as host races, but a further eight are strong candidates that merely lack accurate information on rates of hybridization or gene flow. Thus, over one-half of the cases that we review are probably or certainly host races, under our definition. Our review of the data favours the idea of sympatric speciation via host shift for three major reasons: (i) the evolution of assortative mating as a pleiotropic by-product of adaptation to a new host seems likely, even in cases where mating occurs away from the host; (ii) stable genetic differences in half of the cases attest to the power of natural selection to maintain multilocus polymorphisms with substantial linkage disequilibrium, in spite of probable gene flow; and (iii) this linkage disequilibrium should permit additional host adaptation, leading to further reproductive isolation via pleiotropy, and also provides conditions suitable for adaptive evolution of mate choice (reinforcement) to cause still further reductions in gene flow. Current data are too sparse to rule out a cryptic discontinuity in the apparently stable sympatric route from host-associated polymorphism to host-associated species, but such a hiatus seems unlikely on present evidence. Finally, we discuss applications of an understanding of host races in conservation and in managing adaptation by pests to control strategies, including those involving biological control or transgenic parasite-resistant plants.