Author

# Andrea Walther

Other affiliations: Dresden University of Technology, Humboldt University of Berlin, Humboldt State University ...read more

Bio: Andrea Walther is an academic researcher from University of Paderborn. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Automatic differentiation & Jacobian matrix and determinant. The author has an hindex of 23, co-authored 109 publication(s) receiving 5497 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Andrea Walther include Dresden University of Technology & Humboldt University of Berlin.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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01 Jan 1987TL;DR: This second edition has been updated and expanded to cover recent developments in applications and theory, including an elegant NP completeness argument by Uwe Naumann and a brief introduction to scarcity, a generalization of sparsity.

Abstract: Algorithmic, or automatic, differentiation (AD) is a growing area of theoretical research and software development concerned with the accurate and efficient evaluation of derivatives for function evaluations given as computer programs. The resulting derivative values are useful for all scientific computations that are based on linear, quadratic, or higher order approximations to nonlinear scalar or vector functions. AD has been applied in particular to optimization, parameter identification, nonlinear equation solving, the numerical integration of differential equations, and combinations of these. Apart from quantifying sensitivities numerically, AD also yields structural dependence information, such as the sparsity pattern and generic rank of Jacobian matrices. The field opens up an exciting opportunity to develop new algorithms that reflect the true cost of accurate derivatives and to use them for improvements in speed and reliability. This second edition has been updated and expanded to cover recent developments in applications and theory, including an elegant NP completeness argument by Uwe Naumann and a brief introduction to scarcity, a generalization of sparsity. There is also added material on checkpointing and iterative differentiation. To improve readability the more detailed analysis of memory and complexity bounds has been relegated to separate, optional chapters.The book consists of three parts: a stand-alone introduction to the fundamentals of AD and its software; a thorough treatment of methods for sparse problems; and final chapters on program-reversal schedules, higher derivatives, nonsmooth problems and iterative processes. Each of the 15 chapters concludes with examples and exercises. Audience: This volume will be valuable to designers of algorithms and software for nonlinear computational problems. Current numerical software users should gain the insight necessary to choose and deploy existing AD software tools to the best advantage. Contents: Rules; Preface; Prologue; Mathematical Symbols; Chapter 1: Introduction; Chapter 2: A Framework for Evaluating Functions; Chapter 3: Fundamentals of Forward and Reverse; Chapter 4: Memory Issues and Complexity Bounds; Chapter 5: Repeating and Extending Reverse; Chapter 6: Implementation and Software; Chapter 7: Sparse Forward and Reverse; Chapter 8: Exploiting Sparsity by Compression; Chapter 9: Going beyond Forward and Reverse; Chapter 10: Jacobian and Hessian Accumulation; Chapter 11: Observations on Efficiency; Chapter 12: Reversal Schedules and Checkpointing; Chapter 13: Taylor and Tensor Coefficients; Chapter 14: Differentiation without Differentiability; Chapter 15: Implicit and Iterative Differentiation; Epilogue; List of Figures; List of Tables; Assumptions and Definitions; Propositions, Corollaries, and Lemmas; Bibliography; Index

2,739 citations

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01 Jan 2008

834 citations

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TL;DR: This article presents the function revolve, which generates checkpointing schedules that are provably optimal with regard to a primary and a secondary criterion and is intended to be used as an explicit “controller” for running a time-dependent applications program.

Abstract: In its basic form, the reverse mode of computational differentiation yields the gradient of a scalar-valued function at a cost that is a small multiple of the computational work needed to evaluate the function itself. However, the corresponding memory requirement is proportional to the run-time of the evaluation program. Therefore, the practical applicability of the reverse mode in its original formulation is limited despite the availability of ever larger memory systems. This observation leads to the development of checkpointing schedules to reduce the storage requirements. This article presents the function revolve, which generates checkpointing schedules that are provably optimal with regard to a primary and a secondary criterion. This routine is intended to be used as an explicit “controller” for running a time-dependent applications program.

431 citations

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01 Jan 2009TL;DR: ADOL-C as mentioned in this paper is a C++ package that facilitates the evaluation of first and higher derivatives of vector functions that are defined by computer programs written in C or C++.

Abstract: The C++ package ADOL-C described in this paper facilitates the evaluation of
first and higher derivatives of vector functions that are defined
by computer programs written in C or C++.
The numerical values of derivative vectors are obtained free
of truncation errors at mostly a small multiple of the run time and
a fix small multiple random access memory required by the given
function evaluation program.
Derivative matrices are obtained by columns, by rows or in sparse
format. This tutorial describes the source code modification required
for the application of ADOL-C, the most frequently used drivers to
evaluate derivatives and some recent developments.

148 citations

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TL;DR: A new approach to constrained optimization that is based on direct and adjoint vector-function evaluations in combination with secant updating is proposed, which avoids the avoidance of constraint Jacobian evaluations and the reduction of the linear algebra cost per iteration in the dense, unstructured case.

Abstract: In this article we propose a new approach to constrained optimization that is based on direct and adjoint vector-function evaluations in combination with secant updating. The main goal is the avoidance of constraint Jacobian evaluations and the reduction of the linear algebra cost per iteration to $ {\cal O}(n + m)^2 $ operations in the dense, unstructured case. A crucial building block is a transformation invariant two-sided-rank-one update (TR1) for approximations to the (active) constraint Jacobian. In this article we elaborate its basic properties and report preliminary numerical results for the new total quasi-Newton approach on some small equality constrained problems. A nullspace implementation under development is briefly described. The tasks of identifying active constraints, safeguarding convergence and many other important issues in constrained optimization are not addressed in detail.

85 citations

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28 Oct 2017

TL;DR: An automatic differentiation module of PyTorch is described — a library designed to enable rapid research on machine learning models that focuses on differentiation of purely imperative programs, with a focus on extensibility and low overhead.

Abstract: In this article, we describe an automatic differentiation module of PyTorch — a library designed to enable rapid research on machine learning models. It builds upon a few projects, most notably Lua Torch, Chainer, and HIPS Autograd [4], and provides a high performance environment with easy access to automatic differentiation of models executed on different devices (CPU and GPU). To make prototyping easier, PyTorch does not follow the symbolic approach used in many other deep learning frameworks, but focuses on differentiation of purely imperative programs, with a focus on extensibility and low overhead. Note that this preprint is a draft of certain sections from an upcoming paper covering all PyTorch features.

10,996 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a sedimentological core and petrographic characterisation of samples from eleven boreholes from the Lower Carboniferous of Bowland Basin (Northwest England) is presented.

Abstract: Deposits of clastic carbonate-dominated (calciclastic) sedimentary slope systems in the rock record have been identified mostly as linearly-consistent carbonate apron deposits, even though most ancient clastic carbonate slope deposits fit the submarine fan systems better. Calciclastic submarine fans are consequently rarely described and are poorly understood. Subsequently, very little is known especially in mud-dominated calciclastic submarine fan systems. Presented in this study are a sedimentological core and petrographic characterisation of samples from eleven boreholes from the Lower Carboniferous of Bowland Basin (Northwest England) that reveals a >250 m thick calciturbidite complex deposited in a calciclastic submarine fan setting. Seven facies are recognised from core and thin section characterisation and are grouped into three carbonate turbidite sequences. They include: 1) Calciturbidites, comprising mostly of highto low-density, wavy-laminated bioclast-rich facies; 2) low-density densite mudstones which are characterised by planar laminated and unlaminated muddominated facies; and 3) Calcidebrites which are muddy or hyper-concentrated debrisflow deposits occurring as poorly-sorted, chaotic, mud-supported floatstones. These

9,394 citations

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ENSAE ParisTech

^{1}TL;DR: This work considers approximate Bayesian inference in a popular subset of structured additive regression models, latent Gaussian models, where the latent field is Gaussian, controlled by a few hyperparameters and with non‐Gaussian response variables and can directly compute very accurate approximations to the posterior marginals.

Abstract: Structured additive regression models are perhaps the most commonly used class of models in statistical applications. It includes, among others, (generalized) linear models, (generalized) additive models, smoothing spline models, state space models, semiparametric regression, spatial and spatiotemporal models, log-Gaussian Cox processes and geostatistical and geoadditive models. We consider approximate Bayesian inference in a popular subset of structured additive regression models, latent Gaussian models, where the latent field is Gaussian, controlled by a few hyperparameters and with non-Gaussian response variables. The posterior marginals are not available in closed form owing to the non-Gaussian response variables. For such models, Markov chain Monte Carlo methods can be implemented, but they are not without problems, in terms of both convergence and computational time. In some practical applications, the extent of these problems is such that Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling is simply not an appropriate tool for routine analysis. We show that, by using an integrated nested Laplace approximation and its simplified version, we can directly compute very accurate approximations to the posterior marginals. The main benefit of these approximations is computational: where Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms need hours or days to run, our approximations provide more precise estimates in seconds or minutes. Another advantage with our approach is its generality, which makes it possible to perform Bayesian analysis in an automatic, streamlined way, and to compute model comparison criteria and various predictive measures so that models can be compared and the model under study can be challenged.

3,369 citations

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TL;DR: A Bayesian calibration technique which improves on this traditional approach in two respects and attempts to correct for any inadequacy of the model which is revealed by a discrepancy between the observed data and the model predictions from even the best‐fitting parameter values is presented.

Abstract: We consider prediction and uncertainty analysis for systems which are approximated using complex mathematical models. Such models, implemented as computer codes, are often generic in the sense that by a suitable choice of some of the model's input parameters the code can be used to predict the behaviour of the system in a variety of specific applications. However, in any specific application the values of necessary parameters may be unknown. In this case, physical observations of the system in the specific context are used to learn about the unknown parameters. The process of fitting the model to the observed data by adjusting the parameters is known as calibration. Calibration is typically effected by ad hoc fitting, and after calibration the model is used, with the fitted input values, to predict the future behaviour of the system. We present a Bayesian calibration technique which improves on this traditional approach in two respects. First, the predictions allow for all sources of uncertainty, including the remaining uncertainty over the fitted parameters. Second, they attempt to correct for any inadequacy of the model which is revealed by a discrepancy between the observed data and the model predictions from even the best-fitting parameter values. The method is illustrated by using data from a nuclear radiation release at Tomsk, and from a more complex simulated nuclear accident exercise.

3,190 citations

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TL;DR: The brms package implements Bayesian multilevel models in R using the probabilistic programming language Stan, allowing users to fit linear, robust linear, binomial, Poisson, survival, ordinal, zero-inflated, hurdle, and even non-linear models all in a multileVEL context.

Abstract: The brms package implements Bayesian multilevel models in R using the probabilistic programming language Stan. A wide range of distributions and link functions are supported, allowing users to fit - among others - linear, robust linear, binomial, Poisson, survival, ordinal, zero-inflated, hurdle, and even non-linear models all in a multilevel context. Further modeling options include autocorrelation of the response variable, user defined covariance structures, censored data, as well as meta-analytic standard errors. Prior specifications are flexible and explicitly encourage users to apply prior distributions that actually reflect their beliefs. In addition, model fit can easily be assessed and compared with the Watanabe-Akaike information criterion and leave-one-out cross-validation.

2,415 citations