Andrew M. Liebhold
Other affiliations: United States Forest Service, Northeastern University, United States Department of Agriculture
Bio: Andrew M. Liebhold is an academic researcher from Czech University of Life Sciences Prague. The author has contributed to research in topics: Population & Gypsy moth. The author has an hindex of 70, co-authored 288 publications receiving 18280 citations. Previous affiliations of Andrew M. Liebhold include United States Forest Service & Northeastern University.
Papers published on a yearly basis
University of Oldenburg1, University of Vienna2, Zoological Society of London3, University College London4, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources5, Lincoln University (New Zealand)6, Leibniz Association7, Free University of Berlin8, University of Auckland9, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic10, Charles University in Prague11, Stellenbosch University12, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens13, University of Fribourg14, University of Sassari15, University of Porto16, Sapienza University of Rome17, Durham University18, University of Konstanz19, University of Concepción20, Charles Darwin Foundation21, CABI22, University of Göttingen23, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ24, Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg25, United States Forest Service26, Bielefeld University27, Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland28, Environment Agency29, National Museum of Natural History30, Institut national de la recherche agronomique31, University of Silesia in Katowice32
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used a database of 45,813 first records of 16,926 established alien species and showed that the annual rate of first records worldwide has increased during the last 200 years, with 37% of all first records reported most recently (1970-2014).
Abstract: Although research on human-mediated exchanges of species has substantially intensified during the last centuries, we know surprisingly little about temporal dynamics of alien species accumulations across regions and taxa. Using a novel database of 45,813 first records of 16,926 established alien species, we show that the annual rate of first records worldwide has increased during the last 200 years, with 37% of all first records reported most recently (1970-2014). Inter-continental and inter-taxonomic variation can be largely attributed to the diaspora of European settlers in the nineteenth century and to the acceleration in trade in the twentieth century. For all taxonomic groups, the increase in numbers of alien species does not show any sign of saturation and most taxa even show increases in the rate of first records over time. This highlights that past efforts to mitigate invasions have not been effective enough to keep up with increasing globalization.
TL;DR: In addition to intraspecific synchrony, there are many examples of synchrony among populations of different species, the causes of which are similarly complex and difficult to identify.
Abstract: ▪ Abstract Spatial synchrony refers to coincident changes in the abundance or other time-varying characteristics of geographically disjunct populations. This phenomenon has been documented in the dynamics of species representing a variety of taxa and ecological roles. Synchrony may arise from three primary mechanisms:(a) dispersal among populations, reducing the size of relatively large populations and increasing relatively small ones; (b) congruent dependence of population dynamics on a synchronous exogenous random factor such as temperature or rainfall, a phenomenon known as the “Moran effect”; and (c) trophic interactions with populations of other species that are themselves spatially synchronous or mobile. Identification of the causes of synchrony is often difficult. In addition to intraspecific synchrony, there are many examples of synchrony among populations of different species, the causes of which are similarly complex and difficult to identify. Furthermore, some populations may exhibit complex sp...
Charles University in Prague1, Stellenbosch University2, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic3, Canterbury of New Zealand4, University of Tennessee5, University of Fribourg6, Zoological Society of London7, University College London8, Williams College9, Durham University10, University of Vienna11, South African National Parks12, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources13, Free University of Berlin14, Leibniz Association15, Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg16, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ17, United States Forest Service18, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague19, University of Toronto20, University of Rhode Island21, University of Concepción22, University of Konstanz23, Taizhou University24, University of Seville25, Spanish National Research Council26, University of Pretoria27
TL;DR: Improved international cooperation is crucial to reduce the impacts of invasive alien species on biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human livelihoods, as synergies with other global changes are exacerbating current invasions and facilitating new ones, thereby escalating the extent and impacts of invaders.
Abstract: Biological invasions are a global consequence of an increasingly connected world and the rise in human population size The numbers of invasive alien species – the subset of alien species that spread widely in areas where they are not native, affecting the environment or human livelihoods – are increasing Synergies with other global changes are exacerbating current invasions and facilitating new ones, thereby escalating the extent and impacts of invaders Invasions have complex and often immense long‐term direct and indirect impacts In many cases, such impacts become apparent or problematic only when invaders are well established and have large ranges Invasive alien species break down biogeographic realms, affect native species richness and abundance, increase the risk of native species extinction, affect the genetic composition of native populations, change native animal behaviour, alter phylogenetic diversity across communities, and modify trophic networks Many invasive alien species also change ecosystem functioning and the delivery of ecosystem services by altering nutrient and contaminant cycling, hydrology, habitat structure, and disturbance regimes These biodiversity and ecosystem impacts are accelerating and will increase further in the future Scientific evidence has identified policy strategies to reduce future invasions, but these strategies are often insufficiently implemented For some nations, notably Australia and New Zealand, biosecurity has become a national priority There have been long‐term successes, such as eradication of rats and cats on increasingly large islands and biological control of weeds across continental areas However, in many countries, invasions receive little attention Improved international cooperation is crucial to reduce the impacts of invasive alien species on biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human livelihoods Countries can strengthen their biosecurity regulations to implement and enforce more effective management strategies that should also address other global changes that interact with invasions
TL;DR: During the establishment phase of a biological invasion, population dynamics are strongly influenced by Allee effects and stochastic dynamics, both of which may lead to extinction of low-density populations.
Abstract: During the establishment phase of a biological invasion, population dynamics are strongly influenced by Allee effects and stochastic dynamics, both of which may lead to extinction of low-density populations. Allee effects refer to a decline in population growth rate with a decline in abundance and can arise from various mechanisms. Strategies to eradicate newly established populations should focus on either enhancing Allee effects or suppressing populations below Allee thresholds, such that extinction proceeds without further intervention. The spread phase of invasions results from the coupling of population growth with dispersal. Reaction-diffusion is the simplest form of spread, resulting in continuous expansion and asymptotically constant radial rates of spread. However, spread of most nonindigenous insects is characterized by occasional long-distance dispersal, which results in the formation of isolated colonies that grow, coalesce, and greatly increase spread. Allee effects also affect spread, generally in a negative fashion. Efforts to slow, stop, or reverse spread should incorporate the spread dynamics unique to the target species.
TL;DR: This work presents case histories that illustrate the invasion process via details of the arrival, spread, impact, and management of selected exotic forest pests.
Abstract: For millions of years the distribution of the world's biota has been restricted by oceans and other natural barriers. During the last 100 years, human activities, especially international travel and trade, have circumvented these barriers and species are invading new continents at an increasing rate. Biological invasions of insect, plants, and fungal pest species often cause substantial disturbance to forest ecosystems and as well as severe socioeconomic impacts. The invasion process is composed of three phases: arrival, establishment, and spread. Arrival occurs when a species is initially transported to the new area (e.g. transportation to a new continent). Establishment is essentially the opposite of extinction; it is the process by which a population becomes abundant enough to prevent extinction. Spread is the process by which a species expands its range into adjoining uninfested areas. Management of pest invasions focuses on preventing arrival, establishment, or spread. We present case histories that illustrate the invasion process via details of the arrival, spread, impact, and management of selected exotic forest pests. Biological invasions are probably the most significant environmental threat to the maintenance of natural forest ecosystems in North America and elsewhere. The magnitude of this problem necessitates increased efforts to reduce the incidence and impacts of pest invasions. FOR. SCI. MONOGR. 30:1-49. ADDITIONAL
TL;DR: Preface to the Princeton Landmarks in Biology Edition vii Preface xi Symbols used xiii 1.
Abstract: Preface to the Princeton Landmarks in Biology Edition vii Preface xi Symbols Used xiii 1. The Importance of Islands 3 2. Area and Number of Speicies 8 3. Further Explanations of the Area-Diversity Pattern 19 4. The Strategy of Colonization 68 5. Invasibility and the Variable Niche 94 6. Stepping Stones and Biotic Exchange 123 7. Evolutionary Changes Following Colonization 145 8. Prospect 181 Glossary 185 References 193 Index 201
01 Jan 2009
TL;DR: About 42% of the species on the Threatened or Endangered species lists are at risk primarily because of alien-invasive species.
Abstract: Invading alien species in the United States cause major environmental damages and losses adding up to almost $120 billion per year. There are approximately 50,000 foreign species and the number is increasing. About 42% of the species on the Threatened or Endangered species lists are at risk primarily because of alien-invasive species. D 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a document, redatto, voted and pubblicato by the Ipcc -Comitato intergovernativo sui cambiamenti climatici - illustra la sintesi delle ricerche svolte su questo tema rilevante.
Abstract: Cause, conseguenze e strategie di mitigazione Proponiamo il primo di una serie di articoli in cui affronteremo l’attuale problema dei mutamenti climatici. Presentiamo il documento redatto, votato e pubblicato dall’Ipcc - Comitato intergovernativo sui cambiamenti climatici - che illustra la sintesi delle ricerche svolte su questo tema rilevante.