Bio: Anindita Sen is an academic researcher from University of Burdwan. The author has contributed to research in topics: Aptamer & Biosensor. The author has an hindex of 2, co-authored 6 publications receiving 27 citations.
TL;DR: In this article, a flexible, disposable, and label free biosensing platform for detection of the cancer biomarker (carcinoembryonic antigen, CEA) is presented.
Abstract: We report results of studies relating to the fabrication of a flexible, disposable, and label free biosensing platform for detection of the cancer biomarker (carcinoembryonic antigen, CEA). Polyaniline (PANI) has been electrochemically deposited over gold sputtered paper (Au@paper) for covalent immobilization of monoclonal carcinoembryonic antibodies (anti-CEA). The bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been used for blocking nonspecific binding sites at the anti-CEA conjugated PANI/Au@Paper. The PANI/Au@Paper, anti-CEA/PANI/Au@Paper, and BSA/anti-CEA/PANI/Au@Paper platforms have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy, chronoamperometry, and electrochemical impedance techniques. The results of the electrochemical response studies indicate that this BSA/anti-CEA/PANI/Au@paper electrode has sensitivity of 13.9 μA ng−1 ml cm2, shelf life of 22 days, and can be used to estimate CEA in the range of 2–20 ng ml−1. This paper sensor has been v...
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyzed the effect of environmental standards on aggregate employment in the presence of a productivity effect in a multi-sector general equilibrium framework of an open economy, and identified the role of this productivity effect on the change in employment and show that it may actually improve the chances of an employment expansion.
Abstract: This paper analyses the effect of environmental standards on aggregate employment in the presence of a productivity effect in a multi-sector general equilibrium framework of an open economy. The productivity effect is generated among the skilled and unskilled workers as an improvement in the environmental quality improves their health, leading to an increase in their productivity. Though the productivity effect initially lowers labour demand as labour requirement per unit of production falls, a standard may raise employment depending on the parametric configurations. In this paper, we identify the role of this productivity effect on the change in employment and show that it may actually improve the chances of an employment expansion.
01 Jan 1996
TL;DR: It is shown that aptamers become more strongly adsorbed on AuNPs over time, and these trappedaptamers are less responsive toward the target analyte, highlighting the need for aptamer selection strategies that evolve aptamer sequences based on the functionality they need to exhibit in an actual sensor.
Abstract: DNA aptamers have emerged as promising probes for challenging analytes that cannot be easily detected by conventional probes, including small-molecule targets. Among the different signal transduction approaches, gold nanoparticle (AuNP) aggregation assays have been widely used to generate a colorimetric response from aptamer-target interactions. This sensor design relies on the competition between the aptamer adsorbing to the AuNP surface versus interacting with the target, whereby target binding reduces the number of adsorbed aptamers that destabilizes AuNPs toward salt-induced aggregation, thereby inducing a color change. However, this thermodynamic framework overlooks the potential influence of interaction kinetics of different aptamer conformations with AuNP surfaces and with targets in solution or near surfaces. Here, we show that aptamers become more strongly adsorbed on AuNPs over time, and these trapped aptamers are less responsive toward the target analyte. By varying the sequence of addition in sensing assays, we demonstrate that these interaction kinetics have a significant effect on the sensor response and thereby produce an effective sensor for methamphetamine (meth) at biologically relevant levels in oral fluids. Along with underpinning new tools for assay development, this new knowledge also highlights the need for aptamer selection strategies that evolve aptamer sequences based on the functionality that they need to exhibit in an actual sensor.
TL;DR: In this article , the authors used a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance, circular dichroism, and isothermal titration calorimetry to determine the main interactions driving complex formation.
Abstract: Nucleic-acid aptamers are bio-molecular recognition agents that bind to their targets with high specificity and affinity and hold promise in a range of biosensor and therapeutic applications. In the case of small-molecule targets, their small size and limited number of functional groups constitute challenges for their detection by aptamer-based biosensors because bio-recognition events may both be weak and produce poorly transduced signals. The binding affinity is principally used to characterize aptamer-ligand interactions; however, a structural understanding of bio-recognition is arguably more valuable in order to design a strong response in biosensor applications. Using a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance, circular dichroism, and isothermal titration calorimetry, we propose a binding model for a new methamphetamine aptamer and determine the main interactions driving complex formation. These measurements reveal only modest structural changes to the aptamer upon binding and are consistent with a conformational-selection binding model. The aptamer-methamphetamine complex formation was observed to be entropically driven, apparently involving hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Taken together, our results exemplify a means of elucidating small molecule-aptamer binding interactions, which may be decisive in the development of aptasensors and therapeutics and may contribute to a deeper understanding of interactions driving aptamer selection.
TL;DR: This review deals with four different types of carbon allotrope including carbon nanotubes, graphene, fullerenes and nanodiamonds and summarizes the results of recent studies that are likely to have implications in cancer theranostics.
Abstract: One of the major challenges in our contemporary society is to facilitate healthy life for all human beings. In this context, cancer has become one of the most deadly diseases around the world, and despite many advances in theranostics techniques the treatment of cancer still remains an important problem. With recent advances made in the field of nano-biotechnology, carbon-based nanostructured materials have drawn special attention because of their unique physicochemical properties, giving rise to great potential for the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. This review deals with four different types of carbon allotrope including carbon nanotubes, graphene, fullerenes and nanodiamonds and summarizes the results of recent studies that are likely to have implications in cancer theranostics. We discuss the applications of these carbon allotropes for cancer imaging and drug delivery, hyperthermia, photodynamic therapy and acoustic wave assisted theranostics. We focus on the results of different studies conducted on functionalized/conjugated carbon nanotubes, graphene, fullerenes and nanodiamond based nanostructured materials reported in the literature in the current decade. The emphasis has been placed on the synthesis strategies, structural design, properties and possible mechanisms that are perhaps responsible for their improved theranostic characteristics. Finally, we discuss the critical issues that may accelerate the development of carbon-based nanostructured materials for application in cancer theranostics.
TL;DR: The proposed immunoelectrode was validated with conventional ELISA for the detection of CEA in serum samples of cancer patients and resulted in improved electrochemical performance and signal stability.
Abstract: We report results of the studies relating to the fabrication of a label-free, flexible, light weight and disposable conducting paper based immunosensing platform comprising of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) and nanostructured iron oxide (nFe(2)O(3)@PEDOT:PSS) nanocomposite for detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a cancer biomarker. The effect of various solvents such as sorbitol, ethanol, propanol, n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on the electrical conductivity of Whatman filter paper (WP) modified with nFe(2)O(3)@PEDOT:PSS/WP was investigated. The electrical conductivity of the PEDOT:PSS/WP electrode was found to be enhanced by two orders of magnitude (from 6.8 x 10(-4) to 1.92 x 10(-2) Scm(-1)) after its treatment with DMSO. Further, nFe(2)O(3) doped PEDOT:PSS/WP electrode exhibited the electrical conductivity as 2.4 x 10(-2) Scm(-1). Besides this, the incorporation of iron oxide nanoparticles (nFe(2)O(3)) into PEDOT:PSS/ WP resulted in improved electrochemical performance and signal stability. This nFe(2)O(3)@ PEDOT:PSS/WP based platform was used for immobilization of the anti-carcinoembronic antigen (anti-CEA) protein for quantitative estimation of cancer biomarker (CEA). The results of electrochemical response studies revealed that this conducting paper based immunoelectrode had a sensitivity of 10.2 mu Ang(-1) mLcm(-2) in the physiological range (4-25 ngmL(-1)) and shelf life of 34 days. Further, the proposed immunoelectrode was validated with conventional ELISA for the detection of CEA in serum samples of cancer patients. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
TL;DR: This review tracks the evolution of affinity sensors from conventional lateral-flow test strips to wearable/implantable devices enabled by soft and flexible materials and explores the possibilities for implantable/injectablesoft and flexible material-based affinity sensors.
Abstract: Recent advances in biosensors and point-of-care (PoC) devices are poised to change and expand the delivery of diagnostics from conventional lateral-flow assays and test strips that dominate the market currently, to newly emerging wearable and implantable devices that can provide continuous monitoring. Soft and flexible materials are playing a key role in propelling these trends towards real-time and remote health monitoring. Affinity biosensors have the capability to provide for diagnosis and monitoring of cancerous, cardiovascular, infectious and genetic diseases by the detection of biomarkers using affinity interactions. This review tracks the evolution of affinity sensors from conventional lateral-flow test strips to wearable/implantable devices enabled by soft and flexible materials. Initially, we highlight conventional affinity sensors exploiting membrane and paper materials which have been so successfully applied in point-of-care tests, such as lateral-flow immunoassay strips and emerging microfluidic paper-based devices. We then turn our attention to the multifarious polymer designs that provide both the base materials for sensor designs, such as PDMS, and more advanced functionalised materials that are capable of both recognition and transduction, such as conducting and molecularly imprinted polymers. The subsequent content discusses wearable soft and flexible material-based affinity sensors, classified as flexible and skin-mountable, textile materials-based and contact lens-based affinity sensors. In the final sections, we explore the possibilities for implantable/injectable soft and flexible material-based affinity sensors, including hydrogels, microencapsulated sensors and optical fibers. This area is truly a work in progress and we trust that this review will help pull together the many technological streams that are contributing to the field.
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of environmental regulation on labor supply and demand is analyzed through environmentally biased technological progress, and the results show that progress in environmentally biased technology can promote the supply-demand of regional labor force.
Abstract: Due to the lack of an appropriate method to measure biased technological progress, the theory of how environmental regulations affect employment demand through biased technological progress in Porter's hypothesis has not been effectively verified. To fill this gap, this study extends Acemoglu's (2012) biased technological progress theory, and reasonably measures environmentally biased technological progress using data envelopment analysis. The effect of environmental regulation on labor supply and demand is analyzed through environmentally biased technological progress. The results show that progress in environmentally biased technology can promote the supply and demand of regional labor force. However, if the development of energy saving and emission reduction technology is inconsistent with economic growth, then progress in environmentally biased technology has a negative impact on the demand for regional labor. Environmental regulation has a significant negative impact on labor demand, but its self-adjusting mechanism reignites labor demand.
TL;DR: This is the first report on a flexible chemiresistive biosensor explored for the detection of the malaria biomarker and can be extended in the future to several other biomarker detection systems towards smart point-of-care (POC) diagnostics.
Abstract: We report the fabrication of a flexible, lightweight and disposable multi walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-zinc oxide (ZnO) nanofiber based chemiresistive biosensor for label free detection of the malaria biomarker, histidine rich protein II (HRP2). The sensing platform is formed by depositing nanofibers in between the source and drain electrodes patterned on a thin, flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. MWCNT-ZnO nanofibers are synthesized via the electrospinning technique followed by a calcination process. This approach creates functional groups on the nanofiber surface that are used for the one step immobilization of HRP2 antibodies without further surface modification. The device exhibits a good sensitivity of 8.29 kΩ g-1 mL and a wide detection range of 10 fg mL-1-10 ng mL-1, and it is specific towards the targeted HRP2 biomarker. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on a flexible chemiresistive biosensor explored for the detection of the malaria biomarker and can be extended in the future to several other biomarker detection systems towards smart point-of-care (POC) diagnostics.