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Author

Anja Lund

Other affiliations: University of Borås
Bio: Anja Lund is an academic researcher from Chalmers University of Technology. The author has contributed to research in topics: PEDOT:PSS & Melt spinning. The author has an hindex of 17, co-authored 46 publications receiving 1018 citations. Previous affiliations of Anja Lund include University of Borås.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Durable, electrically conducting yarns with exceptional wear and wash resistance are realized through dyeing silk from the silkworm Bombyx mori with the conjugated polymer:polyelectrolyte complex PEDOT:PSS through embroidery of dyed silk yarns onto a piece of felted wool fabric.
Abstract: Durable, electrically conducting yarns are a critical component of electronic textiles (e-textiles). Here, such yarns with exceptional wear and wash resistance are realized through dyeing silk from the silkworm Bombyx mori with the conjugated polymer:polyelectrolyte complex PEDOT:PSS. A high Young’s modulus of approximately 2 GPa combined with a robust and scalable dyeing process results in up to 40 m long yarns that maintain their bulk electrical conductivity of approximately 14 S cm–1 when experiencing repeated bending stress as well as mechanical wear during sewing. Moreover, a high degree of ambient stability is paired with the ability to withstand both machine washing and dry cleaning. For the potential use for e-textile applications to be illustrated, an in-plane thermoelectric module that comprises 26 p-type legs is demonstrated by embroidery of dyed silk yarns onto a piece of felted wool fabric.

170 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a review explores the many types of conducting fibres and yarns that can be realized with conjugated polymers and carbon materials, including carbon black, carbon nanotubes and graphene.
Abstract: Conducting fibres and yarns promise to become an essential part of the next generation of wearable electronics that seamlessly integrate electronic function into one of the most versatile and most widely used form of materials: textiles. This review explores the many types of conducting fibres and yarns that can be realised with conjugated polymers and carbon materials, including carbon black, carbon nanotubes and graphene. We discuss how the interplay of materials properties and the chosen processing technique lead to fibres with a wide range of electrical and mechanical properties. Depending on the choice of conjugated polymer, carbon nanotube, graphene, polymer blend, or nanocomposite the electrical conductivity can vary from less than 10−3 to more than 103 S cm−1, accompanied by an increase in Young's modulus from 10 s of MPa to 100 s of GPa. Further, we discuss how conducting fibres can be integrated into electronic textiles (e-textiles) through e.g. weaving and knitting. Then, we provide an overview of some of the envisaged functionalities, such as sensing, data processing and storage, as well as energy harvesting e.g. by using the piezoelectric, thermoelectric, triboelectric or photovoltaic effect. Finally, we critically discuss sustainability aspects such as the supply of materials, their toxicity, the embodied energy of fibre and textile production and recyclability, which currently are not adequately considered but must be taken into account to ready carbon based conducting fibres for truly practical e-textile applications.

158 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
22 Mar 2018
TL;DR: In this article, the authors use a weaving loom to realize textile bands with yarns of melt-spun piezoelectric microfibres, that consist of a conducting core surrounded by β-phase poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), in the warp direction.
Abstract: Recent advances in ubiquitous low-power electronics call for the development of light-weight and flexible energy sources. The textile format is highly attractive for unobtrusive harvesting of energy from e.g., biomechanical movements. Here, we report the manufacture and characterisation of fully textile piezoelectric generators that can operate under wet conditions. We use a weaving loom to realise textile bands with yarns of melt-spun piezoelectric microfibres, that consist of a conducting core surrounded by β-phase poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), in the warp direction. The core-sheath constitution of the piezoelectric microfibres results in a—for electronic textiles—unique architecture. The inner electrode is fully shielded from the outer electrode (made up of conducting yarns that are integrated in the weft direction) which prevents shorting under wet conditions. As a result, and in contrast to other energy harvesting textiles, we are able to demonstrate piezoelectric fabrics that do not only continue to function when in contact with water, but show enhanced performance. The piezoelectric bands generate an output of several volts at strains below one percent. We show that integration into the shoulder strap of a laptop case permits the continuous generation of four microwatts of power during a brisk walk. This promising performance, combined with the fact that our solution uses scalable materials and well-established industrial manufacturing methods, opens up the possibility to develop wearable electronics that are powered by piezoelectric textiles.

120 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, double-wall carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) were used to enhance the β-to-α polymorphic balance of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) fibres.

116 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the poling and characteristics of a melt-spun piezoelectric bicomponent fiber with poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) as its sheath component and a conductive composite with car...
Abstract: This study reports on the poling and characteristics of a melt-spun piezoelectric bicomponent fiber with poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) as its sheath component and a conductive composite with car ...

111 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the main characteristics of the electroactive phases of polyvinylidene fluoride and copolymers are summarized, and some interesting potential applications and processing challenges are discussed.

2,242 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A critical review is presented on the current state of the arts of wearable fiber/fabric-based piezoelectric nanogenerators and triboelectrics with respect to basic classifications, material selections, fabrication techniques, structural designs, and working principles, as well as potential applications.
Abstract: Integration of advanced nanogenerator technology with conventional textile processes fosters the emergence of textile-based nanogenerators (NGs), which will inevitably promote the rapid development and widespread applications of next-generation wearable electronics and multifaceted artificial intelligence systems. NGs endow smart textiles with mechanical energy harvesting and multifunctional self-powered sensing capabilities, while textiles provide a versatile flexible design carrier and extensive wearable application platform for their development. However, due to the lack of an effective interactive platform and communication channel between researchers specializing in NGs and those good at textiles, it is rather difficult to achieve fiber/fabric-based NGs with both excellent electrical output properties and outstanding textile-related performances. To this end, a critical review is presented on the current state of the arts of wearable fiber/fabric-based piezoelectric nanogenerators and triboelectric nanogenerators with respect to basic classifications, material selections, fabrication techniques, structural designs, and working principles, as well as potential applications. Furthermore, the potential difficulties and tough challenges that can impede their large-scale commercial applications are summarized and discussed. It is hoped that this review will not only deepen the ties between smart textiles and wearable NGs, but also push forward further research and applications of future wearable fiber/fabric-based NGs.

729 citations

Proceedings Article
01 Jan 2009
TL;DR: This paper summarizes recent energy harvesting results and their power management circuits.
Abstract: More than a decade of research in the field of thermal, motion, vibration and electromagnetic radiation energy harvesting has yielded increasing power output and smaller embodiments. Power management circuits for rectification and DC-DC conversion are becoming able to efficiently convert the power from these energy harvesters. This paper summarizes recent energy harvesting results and their power management circuits.

711 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: These strategies include blending with plasticizers or polymers, deposition on elastomers, formation of fibers and gels, and the use of intrinsically stretchable scaffolds for the polymerization of PEDOT.
Abstract: The conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), and especially its complex with poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), is perhaps the most well-known example of an organic conductor. It is highly conductive, largely transmissive to light, processible in water, and highly flexible. Much recent work on this ubiquitous material has been devoted to increasing its deformability beyond flexibility-a characteristic possessed by any material that is sufficiently thin-toward stretchability, a characteristic that requires engineering of the structure at the molecular- or nanoscale. Stretchability is the enabling characteristic of a range of applications envisioned for PEDOT in energy and healthcare, such as wearable, implantable, and large-area electronic devices. High degrees of mechanical deformability allow intimate contact with biological tissues and solution-processable printing techniques (e.g., roll-to-roll printing). PEDOT:PSS, however, is only stretchable up to around 10%. Here, the strategies that have been reported to enhance the stretchability of conductive polymers and composites based on PEDOT and PEDOT:PSS are highlighted. These strategies include blending with plasticizers or polymers, deposition on elastomers, formation of fibers and gels, and the use of intrinsically stretchable scaffolds for the polymerization of PEDOT.

546 citations