scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Author

Ann B. Kier

Bio: Ann B. Kier is an academic researcher from Texas A&M University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Fatty acid-binding protein & Sterol carrier protein. The author has an hindex of 43, co-authored 162 publications receiving 10164 citations. Previous affiliations of Ann B. Kier include National Institutes of Health & University of Missouri.


Papers
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
22 Oct 1992-Nature
TL;DR: TGF-β1-deficient mice may be valuable models for human immune and inflammatory disorders, including autoimmune diseases, transplant rejection and graft versus host reactions.
Abstract: Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) is a multifunctional growth factor that has profound regulatory effects on many developmental and physiological processes. Disruption of the TGF-beta 1 gene by homologous recombination in murine embryonic stem cells enables mice to be generated that carry the disrupted allele. Animals homozygous for the mutated TGF-beta 1 allele show no gross developmental abnormalities, but about 20 days after birth they succumb to a wasting syndrome accompanied by a multifocal, mixed inflammatory cell response and tissue necrosis, leading to organ failure and death. TGF-beta 1-deficient mice may be valuable models for human immune and inflammatory disorders, including autoimmune diseases, transplant rejection and graft versus host reactions.

3,010 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
17 May 1991-Cell
TL;DR: Analysis indicated that embryonic erythropoiesis, which occurs in the yolk sac, was not impaired by the c-myb alteration, but adult-type erythropsy was greatly diminished in c-Myb mutants, which is compatible with a role for c- myb in maintaining the proliferative state of hematopoietic progenitor cells.

1,058 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The emerging picture is that the cell has multiple, overlapping mechanisms that assure adequate uptake and directed intracellular movement of LCFA required for maintenance of physiological functions.

381 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work examines the role of high-density lipoprotein, cholesterol lowering drugs, and intracellular lipid transfer proteins in membrane sterol domain structure and sterol movement between membranes to elucidation of cholesterol dynamics in membranes.
Abstract: Nonreceptor mediated cholesterol uptake and reverse cholesterol transport in cells occur through cellular membranes. Thus, elucidation of cholesterol dynamics in membranes is essential to understanding cellular cholesterol accumulation and loss. To this end, it has become increasingly evident that cholesterol is not randomly distributed in either model or biologic membranes. Instead, membrane cholesterol appears to be organized into structural and kinetic domains or pools. Cholesterol-rich and poor domains can even be observed histochemically and physically isolated from epithelial cell surface membranes. The physiologic importance of these domains is 2-fold: (i) Select membrane proteins (receptors, transporters, etc.) are localized in either cholesterol-rich or cholesterol-poor domains. Consequently, the structure and properties of the domains rather than of the bulk lipid may selectively affect the function of proteins residing therein. (ii) Kinetic evidence suggests that cholesterol transport through and between membranes may occur through specific domains or pools. Regulation of the size and properties of such domains may be controlling factors of cholesterol transport or accumulation in cells. Recent technologic advances in the use of fluorescent sterols have allowed examination of cholesterol domain structure in model and biologic membranes. These techniques have been applied to examine the role of high-density lipoprotein, cholesterol lowering drugs, and intracellular lipid transfer proteins in membrane sterol domain structure and sterol movement between membranes.

252 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Although the 13 kDa SCP-2 is the most studied of these proteins, because it exhibits diversity of its ligand partners, new potential physiological function(s) are still being proposed and questions regarding potential compensation by other proteins with overlapping specificity are only beginning to be resolved.

216 citations


Cited by
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) family of growth factors control the development and homeostasis of most tissues in metazoan organisms and mutations in these pathways are the cause of various forms of human cancer and developmental disorders.
Abstract: The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) family of growth factors control the development and homeostasis of most tissues in metazoan organisms. Work over the past few years has led to the elucidation of a TGF-beta signal transduction network. This network involves receptor serine/threonine kinases at the cell surface and their substrates, the SMAD proteins, which move into the nucleus, where they activate target gene transcription in association with DNA-binding partners. Distinct repertoires of receptors, SMAD proteins, and DNA-binding partners seemingly underlie, in a cell-specific manner, the multifunctional nature of TGF-beta and related factors. Mutations in these pathways are the cause of various forms of human cancer and developmental disorders.

7,710 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
11 May 2006-Nature
TL;DR: It is shown that IL-6, an acute phase protein induced during inflammation, completely inhibits the generation of Foxp3+ Treg cells induced by TGF-β, and the data demonstrate a dichotomy in thegeneration of pathogenic (TH17) T cells that induce autoimmunity and regulatory (Foxp3+) T Cells that inhibit autoimmune tissue injury.
Abstract: On activation, T cells undergo distinct developmental pathways, attaining specialized properties and effector functions. T-helper (T(H)) cells are traditionally thought to differentiate into T(H)1 and T(H)2 cell subsets. T(H)1 cells are necessary to clear intracellular pathogens and T(H)2 cells are important for clearing extracellular organisms. Recently, a subset of interleukin (IL)-17-producing T (T(H)17) cells distinct from T(H)1 or T(H)2 cells has been described and shown to have a crucial role in the induction of autoimmune tissue injury. In contrast, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (T(reg)) cells inhibit autoimmunity and protect against tissue injury. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a critical differentiation factor for the generation of T(reg) cells. Here we show, using mice with a reporter introduced into the endogenous Foxp3 locus, that IL-6, an acute phase protein induced during inflammation, completely inhibits the generation of Foxp3+ T(reg) cells induced by TGF-beta. We also demonstrate that IL-23 is not the differentiation factor for the generation of T(H)17 cells. Instead, IL-6 and TGF-beta together induce the differentiation of pathogenic T(H)17 cells from naive T cells. Our data demonstrate a dichotomy in the generation of pathogenic (T(H)17) T cells that induce autoimmunity and regulatory (Foxp3+) T cells that inhibit autoimmune tissue injury.

6,643 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Findings that have advanced the understanding of IL-10 and its receptor are highlighted, as well as its in vivo function in health and disease.
Abstract: Interleukin-10 (IL-10), first recognized for its ability to inhibit activation and effector function of T cells, monocytes, and macrophages, is a multifunctional cytokine with diverse effects on most hemopoietic cell types. The principal routine function of IL-10 appears to be to limit and ultimately terminate inflammatory responses. In addition to these activities, IL-10 regulates growth and/or differentiation of B cells, NK cells, cytotoxic and helper T cells, mast cells, granulocytes, dendritic cells, keratinocytes, and endothelial cells. IL-10 plays a key role in differentiation and function of a newly appreciated type of T cell, the T regulatory cell, which may figure prominently in control of immune responses and tolerance in vivo. Uniquely among hemopoietic cytokines, IL-10 has closely related homologs in several virus genomes, which testify to its crucial role in regulating immune and inflammatory responses. This review highlights findings that have advanced our understanding of IL-10 and its receptor, as well as its in vivo function in health and disease.

6,308 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Novel evidence is presented that conversion of naive peripheral CD4+CD25− T cells into anergic/suppressor cells that are CD25+, CD45RB−/low and intracellular CTLA-4+ can be achieved through costimulation with T cell receptors (TCRs) and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β).
Abstract: CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) are instrumental in the maintenance of immunological tolerance. One critical question is whether Treg can only be generated in the thymus or can differentiate from peripheral CD4+CD25− naive T cells. In this paper, we present novel evidence that conversion of naive peripheral CD4+CD25− T cells into anergic/suppressor cells that are CD25+, CD45RB−/low and intracellular CTLA-4+ can be achieved through costimulation with T cell receptors (TCRs) and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). Although transcription factor Foxp3 has been shown recently to be associated with the development of Treg, the physiological inducers for Foxp3 gene expression remain a mystery. TGF-β induced Foxp3 gene expression in TCR-challenged CD4+CD25− naive T cells, which mediated their transition toward a regulatory T cell phenotype with potent immunosuppressive potential. These converted anergic/suppressor cells are not only unresponsive to TCR stimulation and produce neither T helper cell 1 nor T helper cell 2 cytokines but they also express TGF-β and inhibit normal T cell proliferation in vitro. More importantly, in an ovalbumin peptide TCR transgenic adoptive transfer model, TGF-β–converted transgenic CD4+CD25+ suppressor cells proliferated in response to immunization and inhibited antigen-specific naive CD4+ T cell expansion in vivo. Finally, in a murine asthma model, coadministration of these TGF-β–induced suppressor T cells prevented house dust mite–induced allergic pathogenesis in lungs.

4,669 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
22 Oct 1993-Cell
TL;DR: The results indicate that the bowel inflammation in the mutants originates from uncontrolled immune responses stimulated by enteric antigens and that IL-10 is an essential immunoregulator in the intestinal tract.

4,196 citations