Anna M. Rydzik
Other affiliations: University of Warsaw
Bio: Anna M. Rydzik is an academic researcher from University of Oxford. The author has contributed to research in topics: Carnitine biosynthesis & EIF4E. The author has an hindex of 19, co-authored 40 publications receiving 1175 citations. Previous affiliations of Anna M. Rydzik include University of Warsaw.
TL;DR: Crystallographic studies on these oxygenases demonstrate that IOX1, but not 4C8HQ, can cause translocation of the active site metal, revealing a rare example of protein ligand-induced metal movement.
Abstract: 2-Oxoglutarate and iron dependent oxygenases are therapeutic targets for human diseases. Using a representative 2OG oxygenase panel, we compare the inhibitory activities of 5-carboxy-8-hydroxyquinoline (IOX1) and 4-carboxy-8-hydroxyquinoline (4C8HQ) with that of two other commonly used 2OG oxygenase inhibitors, N-oxalylglycine (NOG) and 2,4-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (2,4-PDCA). The results reveal that IOX1 has a broad spectrum of activity, as demonstrated by the inhibition of transcription factor hydroxylases, representatives of all 2OG dependent histone demethylase subfamilies, nucleic acid demethylases and γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase. Cellular assays show that, unlike NOG and 2,4-PDCA, IOX1 is active against both cytosolic and nuclear 2OG oxygenases without ester derivatisation. Unexpectedly, crystallographic studies on these oxygenases demonstrate that IOX1, but not 4C8HQ, can cause translocation of the active site metal, revealing a rare example of protein ligand-induced metal movement.
TL;DR: Kinetic and crystallographic studies reveal that daminozide chelates the active site metal via its hydrazide carbonyl and dimethylamino groups to selectively inhibits the KDM2/7 JmjC subfamily.
Abstract: The JmjC oxygenases catalyze the N-demethylation of Ne-methyl lysine residues in histones and are current therapeutic targets. A set of human 2-oxoglutarate analogues were screened using a unified assay platform for JmjC demethylases and related oxygenases. Results led to the finding that daminozide (N-(dimethylamino)succinamic acid, 160 Da), a plant growth regulator, selectively inhibits the KDM2/7 JmjC subfamily. Kinetic and crystallographic studies reveal that daminozide chelates the active site metal via its hydrazide carbonyl and dimethylamino groups.
TL;DR: Crystallographic analyses of the mechanism of inhibition of the clinically relevant VIM-2 MBL by a rhodanine reveal that the r Rhodanine ring undergoes hydrolysis to give a thioenolate, a potent broad-spectrum MBL inhibitor and a lead structure for the development of new types of clinically useful MBL inhibitors.
Abstract: The use of β-lactam antibiotics is compromised by resistance, which is provided by β-lactamases belonging to both metallo (MBL)- and serine (SBL)-β-lactamase subfamilies. The rhodanines are one of very few compound classes that inhibit penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), SBLs and, as recently reported, MBLs. Here, we describe crystallographic analyses of the mechanism of inhibition of the clinically relevant VIM-2 MBL by a rhodanine, which reveal that the rhodanine ring undergoes hydrolysis to give a thioenolate. The thioenolate is found to bind via di-zinc chelation, mimicking the binding of intermediates in β-lactam hydrolysis. Crystallization of VIM-2 in the presence of the intact rhodanine led to observation of a ternary complex of MBL, a thioenolate fragment and rhodanine. The crystallographic observations are supported by kinetic and biophysical studies, including (19)F NMR analyses, which reveal the rhodanine-derived thioenolate to be a potent broad-spectrum MBL inhibitor and a lead structure for the development of new types of clinically useful MBL inhibitors.
TL;DR: In this article, a set of clinically relevant metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) were identified and the identification of suitable fluorogenic substrates (umbelliferone-derived cephalosporins).
Abstract: Metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) are a growing threat to the use of almost all clinically used β-lactam antibiotics. The identification of broad-spectrum MBL inhibitors is hampered by the lack of a suitable screening platform, consisting of appropriate substrates and a set of clinically relevant MBLs. We report procedures for the preparation of a set of clinically relevant metallo-β-lactamases (i.e., NDM-1 (New Delhi MBL), IMP-1 (Imipenemase), SPM-1 (Sao Paulo MBL), and VIM-2 (Verona integron-encoded MBL)) and the identification of suitable fluorogenic substrates (umbelliferone-derived cephalosporins). The fluorogenic substrates were compared to chromogenic substrates (CENTA, nitrocefin, and imipenem), showing improved sensitivity and kinetic parameters. The efficiency of the fluorogenic substrates was exemplified by inhibitor screening, identifying 4-chloroisoquinolinols as potential pan MBL inhibitors.
TL;DR: The results suggest that while the evolution of MBLs that more efficiently catalyze avibactam hydrolysis should be anticipated, pursuing the development of dual-action SBL and MBL inhibitors based on the diazabicyclooctane core of avibactsam may be productive.
Abstract: β-Lactamases are the most important mechanisms of resistance to the β-lactam antibacterials. There are two mechanistic classes of β-lactamases: the serine β-lactamases (SBLs) and the zinc-dependent metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs). Avibactam, the first clinically useful non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor, is a broad-spectrum SBL inhibitor, which is used in combination with a cephalosporin antibiotic (ceftazidime). There are multiple reports on the interaction of avibactam with SBLs but few such studies with MBLs. We report biochemical and biophysical studies on the binding and reactivity of avibactam with representatives from all 3 MBL subfamilies (B1, B2, and B3). Avibactam has only limited or no activity versus MBL-mediated resistance in pathogens. Avibactam does not inhibit MBLs and binds only weakly to most of the MBLs tested; in some cases, avibactam undergoes slow hydrolysis of one of its urea N-CO bonds followed by loss of CO2, in a process different from that observed with the SBLs studied. The results suggest that while the evolution of MBLs that more efficiently catalyze avibactam hydrolysis should be anticipated, pursuing the development of dual-action SBL and MBL inhibitors based on the diazabicyclooctane core of avibactam may be productive.
TL;DR: This volume is keyed to high resolution electron microscopy, which is a sophisticated form of structural analysis, but really morphology in a modern guise, the physical and mechanical background of the instrument and its ancillary tools are simply and well presented.
Abstract: I read this book the same weekend that the Packers took on the Rams, and the experience of the latter event, obviously, colored my judgment. Although I abhor anything that smacks of being a handbook (like, \"How to Earn a Merit Badge in Neurosurgery\") because too many volumes in biomedical science already evince a boyscout-like approach, I must confess that parts of this volume are fast, scholarly, and significant, with certain reservations. I like parts of this well-illustrated book because Dr. Sj6strand, without so stating, develops certain subjects on technique in relation to the acquisition of judgment and sophistication. And this is important! So, given that the author (like all of us) is somewhat deficient in some areas, and biased in others, the book is still valuable if the uninitiated reader swallows it in a general fashion, realizing full well that what will be required from the reader is a modulation to fit his vision, propreception, adaptation and response, and the kind of problem he is undertaking. A major deficiency of this book is revealed by comparison of its use of physics and of chemistry to provide understanding and background for the application of high resolution electron microscopy to problems in biology. Since the volume is keyed to high resolution electron microscopy, which is a sophisticated form of structural analysis, but really morphology in a modern guise, the physical and mechanical background of The instrument and its ancillary tools are simply and well presented. The potential use of chemical or cytochemical information as it relates to biological fine structure , however, is quite deficient. I wonder when even sophisticated morphol-ogists will consider fixation a reaction and not a technique; only then will the fundamentals become self-evident and predictable and this sine qua flon will become less mystical. Staining reactions (the most inadequate chapter) ought to be something more than a technique to selectively enhance contrast of morphological elements; it ought to give the structural addresses of some of the chemical residents of cell components. Is it pertinent that auto-radiography gets singled out for more complete coverage than other significant aspects of cytochemistry by a high resolution microscopist, when it has a built-in minimal error of 1,000 A in standard practice? I don't mean to blind-side (in strict football terminology) Dr. Sj6strand's efforts for what is \"routinely used in our laboratory\"; what is done is usually well done. It's just that …
TL;DR: The aberrant functions of enzymes in DNA methylation, histone acetylation and histone methylation during tumor progression are summarized and the development of inhibitors of or drugs targeted at epigenetic enzymes are highlighted.
Abstract: Epigenetic alternations concern heritable yet reversible changes in histone or DNA modifications that regulate gene activity beyond the underlying sequence. Epigenetic dysregulation is often linked to human disease, notably cancer. With the development of various drugs targeting epigenetic regulators, epigenetic-targeted therapy has been applied in the treatment of hematological malignancies and has exhibited viable therapeutic potential for solid tumors in preclinical and clinical trials. In this review, we summarize the aberrant functions of enzymes in DNA methylation, histone acetylation and histone methylation during tumor progression and highlight the development of inhibitors of or drugs targeted at epigenetic enzymes.
TL;DR: It is contended that issues including continuing unresolved questions around mechanism; opportunities afforded by new technologies such as serial femtosecond crystallography; the need for new inhibitors, particularly for MBLs; the likely impact of new β-lactam:inhibitor combinations and the continuing clinical importance of β- lactams mean that this remains a rewarding research area.
Abstract: The β-lactams retain a central place in the antibacterial armamentarium. In Gram-negative bacteria, β-lactamase enzymes that hydrolyze the amide bond of the four-membered β-lactam ring are the primary resistance mechanism, with multiple enzymes disseminating on mobile genetic elements across opportunistic pathogens such as Enterobacteriaceae (e.g., Escherichia coli) and non-fermenting organisms (e.g., Pseudomonas aeruginosa). β-Lactamases divide into four classes; the active-site serine β-lactamases (classes A, C and D) and the zinc-dependent or metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs; class B). Here we review recent advances in mechanistic understanding of each class, focusing upon how growing numbers of crystal structures, in particular for β-lactam complexes, and methods such as neutron diffraction and molecular simulations, have improved understanding of the biochemistry of β-lactam breakdown. A second focus is β-lactamase interactions with carbapenems, as carbapenem-resistant bacteria are of grave clinical concern and carbapenem-hydrolyzing enzymes such as KPC (class A) NDM (class B) and OXA-48 (class D) are proliferating worldwide. An overview is provided of the changing landscape of β-lactamase inhibitors, exemplified by the introduction to the clinic of combinations of β-lactams with diazabicyclooctanone and cyclic boronate serine β-lactamase inhibitors, and of progress and strategies toward clinically useful MBL inhibitors. Despite the long history of β-lactamase research, we contend that issues including continuing unresolved questions around mechanism; opportunities afforded by new technologies such as serial femtosecond crystallography; the need for new inhibitors, particularly for MBLs; the likely impact of new β-lactam:inhibitor combinations and the continuing clinical importance of β-lactams mean that this remains a rewarding research area.
TL;DR: This article reviews the mechanisms of resistance, epidemiology, and clinical impact and current and upcoming therapeutic options of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and describes future options, such as use of vaccines, antibodies, bacteriocins, anti-quorum sensing, and bacteriophages.
Abstract: In recent years, the worldwide spread of the so-called high-risk clones of multidrug-resistant or extensively drug-resistant (MDR/XDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa has become a public health threat. This article reviews their mechanisms of resistance, epidemiology, and clinical impact and current and upcoming therapeutic options. In vitro and in vivo treatment studies and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) models are discussed. Polymyxins are reviewed as an important therapeutic option, outlining dosage, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and their clinical efficacy against MDR/XDR P. aeruginosa infections. Their narrow therapeutic window and potential for combination therapy are also discussed. Other "old" antimicrobials, such as certain β-lactams, aminoglycosides, and fosfomycin, are reviewed here. New antipseudomonals, as well as those in the pipeline, are also reviewed. Ceftolozane-tazobactam has clinical activity against a significant percentage of MDR/XDR P. aeruginosa strains, and its microbiological and clinical data, as well as recommendations for improving its use against these bacteria, are described, as are those for ceftazidime-avibactam, which has better activity against MDR/XDR P. aeruginosa, especially strains with certain specific mechanisms of resistance. A section is devoted to reviewing upcoming active drugs such as imipenem-relebactam, cefepime-zidebactam, cefiderocol, and murepavadin. Finally, other therapeutic strategies, such as use of vaccines, antibodies, bacteriocins, anti-quorum sensing, and bacteriophages, are described as future options.