Bio: Anna Sapino is an academic researcher from University of Turin. The author has contributed to research in topics: Breast cancer & Cancer. The author has an hindex of 60, co-authored 389 publications receiving 12427 citations. Previous affiliations of Anna Sapino include Institute of Cancer Research & The Breast Cancer Research Foundation.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Ciardiello et al. as discussed by the authors found that HER2 amplification was a predictor of resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies and response to combination therapies against HER2 in this tumor setting.
Abstract: Only a fraction of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer receive clinical benefit from therapy with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies, which calls for the identification of novel biomarkers for better personalized medicine. We produced large xenograft cohorts from 85 patient-derived, genetically characterized metastatic colorectal cancer samples (“xenopatients”) to discover novel determinants of therapeutic response and new oncoprotein targets. Serially passaged tumors retained the morphologic and genomic features of their original counterparts. A validation trial confirmed the robustness of this approach: xenopatients responded to the anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab with rates and extents analogous to those observed in the clinic and could be prospectively stratified as responders or nonresponders on the basis of several predictive biomarkers. Genotype–response correlations indicated HER2 amplification specifically in a subset of cetuximab-resistant, KRAS/NRAS/BRAF/PIK3CA wild-type cases. Importantly, HER2 amplification was also enriched in clinically nonresponsive KRAS wild-type patients. A proof-of-concept, multiarm study in HER2 -amplified xenopatients revealed that the combined inhibition of HER2 and EGFR induced overt, long-lasting tumor regression. Our results suggest promising therapeutic opportunities in cetuximab-resistant patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, whose medical treatment in the chemorefractory setting remains an unmet clinical need. Significance: Direct transfer xenografts of tumor surgical specimens conserve the interindividual diversity and the genetic heterogeneity typical of the tumors of origin, combining the flexibility of preclinical analysis with the informative value of population-based studies. Our suite of patient-derived xenografts from metastatic colorectal carcinomas reliably mimicked disease response in humans, prospectively recapitulated biomarker-based case stratification, and identified HER2 as a predictor of resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies and of response to combination therapies against HER2 and epidermal growth factor receptor in this tumor setting. Cancer Discovery; 1(6) ; 508–23. ©2011 AACR . Read the Commentary on this article by Ciardiello and Normanno, [p. 472] This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, [p. 457] : /lookup/volpage/1/472?iss=6 : /lookup/volpage/1/457?iss=6
TL;DR: The sensitivity of caspase-3-deficient breast cancer (MCF-7) cells to undergo apoptosis in response to doxorubicin and other apoptotic stimuli could be augmented by reconstituting caspases-3 expression.
Abstract: Caspase-3 is a member of the cysteine protease family, which plays a crucial role in apoptotic pathways by cleaving a variety of key cellular proteins. Caspase-3 can be activated by diverse death-inducing signals, including the chemotherapeutic agents. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of caspase-3 expression in breast tumor samples and to determine whether alterations in its expression can affect their ability to undergo apoptosis. Primary breast tumor and normal breast parenchyma samples were obtained from patients undergoing breast surgery and the expression of caspases-3 was studied. Similarly, normal mammary epithelial cells and several established mammary cancer cell lines were studied for caspases-3 expression by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Northern blot analysis, and Western blot analysis. Approximately 75% of the tumor as well as morphologically normal peritumoral tissue samples lacked the caspase-3 transcript and caspase-3 protein expression. In addition, the caspases-3 mRNA levels in commercially available total RNA samples from breast, ovarian, and cervical tumors were either undetectable (breast and cervical) or substantially decreased (ovarian). Despite the complete loss of caspase-3, the expression levels of other caspases, such as caspase-8 and caspase-9, were normal in all of the tumor samples studied. The sensitivity of caspase-3-deficient breast cancer (MCF-7) cells to undergo apoptosis in response to doxorubicin and other apoptotic stimuli could be augmented by reconstituting caspase-3 expression. These results suggest that the loss of caspases-3 expression may represent an important cell survival mechanism in breast cancer patients.
Singapore General Hospital1, University of Nottingham2, Stanford University3, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center4, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre5, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital6, University of Texas at Austin7, University of Turin8, Tohoku University9, Brigham and Women's Hospital10, Université libre de Bruxelles11, University Medical Center Utrecht12, International Agency for Research on Cancer13
TL;DR: The newly published World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Tumours of the breast features significant changes compared to earlier editions, and this review outlines the major changes.
Abstract: The newly published World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Tumours of the breast features significant changes compared to earlier editions. In this review, we outline the major changes in this important reference source for those diagnosing tumours, or engaged in cancer research, and describe the significant changes. For breast cancer, the overview acknowledges the treatment-relevant subtypes of invasive carcinoma (based on ER and HER2 status) and new data is added to support the differences in pathogenesis, treatment response and prognosis of these clinically relevant groupings. The WHO Classification of Tumours is increasingly evidence-based, with a clear update cycle, improved quality of illustrations, as well as content, led by an editorial board comprising pathologists, but increasingly incorporating input from other disciplines. The advent of the new website allows the use of whole slide images, and hyperlinks to evidence or external bodies that produce guidance on staging or reporting.
TL;DR: This study provides the first demonstration of specific GHS binding sites, other than GHS-R1, in breast cancer.
Abstract: The family of GH secretagogues (GHS) includes synthetic peptidyl (hexarelin) and nonpeptidyl (MK-0677) molecules possessing specific receptors in the pituitary and central nervous system as well as in peripheral tissues, including the heart and some endocrine organs. A gastric-derived peptide, named ghrelin, has recently been proposed as the natural ligand of the GHS receptors (GHS-Rs). The presence of specific GHS-Rs has now been investigated in nontumoral and neoplastic human breast tissue using a radioiodinated peptidyl GHS ([125I]-Tyr-Ala-hexarelin) as ligand. Specific binding sites for GHS were detected in membranes from several types of breast carcinomas, whereas a negligible binding was found in fibroadenomas and mammary parenchyma. The highest binding activity was found in well-differentiated (G1) invasive breast carcinomas and was progressively reduced in moderately (G2) to poorly (G3) differentiated tumors.[ 125I]-Tyr-Ala-hexarelin bound to tumor membranes was displaced by different unlabeled GH...
TL;DR: The need for further axillary treatment in patients with breast cancer with low‐volume sentinel node (SN) involvement (micrometastases or smaller) is controversial.
Abstract: Background: The need for further axillary treatment in patients with breast cancer with low-volume sentinel node (SN) involvement (micrometastases or smaller) is controversial. Methods: Twenty-five studies reporting on non-SN involvement associated with low-volume SN involvement were identified using Medline and a meta-analysis was performed. Results: The weighted mean estimate for the incidence of non-SN metastases after low-volume SN involvement is around 20 per cent, whereas this incidence is around 9 per cent if the SN involvement is detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) alone. Subset analyses suggest that studies with axillary dissection after any type of SN involvement result in somewhat higher estimates than studies allowing omission of axillary clearance, as do studies with more detailed histological evaluation of the SN compared with those with a less intensive histological protocol. Higher-quality papers yield lower pooled estimates than lower-quality papers. Conclusion: The risk of non-SN metastasis with a low-volume metastasis in the SN is around 10–15 per cent, depending on the method of detection of SN involvement. This should be taken into account when assessing the risk of omission of axillary dissection after a positive SN biopsy yielding micrometastatic or immunohistochemically positive SNs. Copyright © 2004 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
01 Jan 2015
TL;DR: There are now unprecedented opportunities to understand and overcome drug resistance through the clinical assessment of rational therapeutic drug combinations and the use of predictive biomarkers to enable patient stratification.
Abstract: Resistance to chemotherapy and molecularly targeted therapies is a major problem facing current cancer research. The mechanisms of resistance to 'classical' cytotoxic chemotherapeutics and to therapies that are designed to be selective for specific molecular targets share many features, such as alterations in the drug target, activation of prosurvival pathways and ineffective induction of cell death. With the increasing arsenal of anticancer agents, improving preclinical models and the advent of powerful high-throughput screening techniques, there are now unprecedented opportunities to understand and overcome drug resistance through the clinical assessment of rational therapeutic drug combinations and the use of predictive biomarkers to enable patient stratification.
TL;DR: Reduction of lysyl oxidase-mediated collagen crosslinking prevented MMTV-Neu-induced fibrosis, decreased focal adhesions and PI3K activity, impeded malignancy, and lowered tumor incidence, and data show how collagenCrosslinking can modulate tissue fibrosis and stiffness to force focal adhesion, growth factor signaling and breast malignancies.
Abstract: Tumors are characterized by extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and stiffening. The importance of ECM remodeling to cancer is appreciated; the relevance of stiffening is less clear. We found that breast tumorigenesis is accompanied by collagen crosslinking, ECM stiffening, and increased focal adhesions. Induction of collagen crosslinking stiffened the ECM, promoted focal adhesions, enhanced PI3 kinase (PI3K) activity, and induced the invasion of an oncogene-initiated epithelium. Inhibition of integrin signaling repressed the invasion of a premalignant epithelium into a stiffened, crosslinked ECM and forced integrin clustering promoted focal adhesions, enhanced PI3K signaling, and induced the invasion of a premalignant epithelium. Consistently, reduction of lysyl oxidase-mediated collagen crosslinking prevented MMTV-Neu-induced fibrosis, decreased focal adhesions and PI3K activity, impeded malignancy, and lowered tumor incidence. These data show how collagen crosslinking can modulate tissue fibrosis and stiffness to force focal adhesions, growth factor signaling and breast malignancy.
Johns Hopkins University1, University of Utah2, University of Rochester3, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust4, National Institutes of Health5, Stanford University6, Washington University in St. Louis7, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research8, University of Sydney9, St. Jude Medical Center10, University of Toronto11, Mayo Clinic12, American Society of Clinical Oncology13, University of Southern California14, North Carolina State University15, Indiana University16, University of Milan17, University of Michigan18
TL;DR: The Update Committee recommends that HER2 status (HER2 negative or positive) be determined in all patients with invasive breast cancer on the basis of one or more HER2 test results (negative, equivocal, or positive).
Abstract: Purpose To update the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)/College of American Pathologists (CAP) guideline recommendations for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) testing in breast cancer to improve the accuracy of HER2 testing and its utility as a predictive marker in invasive breast cancer.