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Anne E. Winkler

Bio: Anne E. Winkler is an academic researcher from University of Missouri–St. Louis. The author has contributed to research in topics: BITNET & Higher education. The author has an hindex of 20, co-authored 56 publications receiving 2224 citations. Previous affiliations of Anne E. Winkler include Johns Hopkins University & University of Missouri.


Papers
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Book
01 Jan 1986
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of supply and demand in the U.S. labor market is presented, with a focus on the sources of gender differences in earnings and educational attainment of women.
Abstract: Chapter 1 Introduction What Economics Is About Uses of Economic Theory The Scope of Economics Individuals, Families, and Households A Note on Terminology Outline of the Book Appendix: A Review of Supply and Demand in the Labor Market Chapter 2 Women and Men: Historical Perspectives The Source of Gender Differences: Nature versus Nurture-The Ongoing Debate Factors Influencing Women's Relative Status Women's Roles and Economic Development The U.S. Experience Chapter 3 The Family as an Economic Unit: Theoretical Perspectives The Simple Neoclassical Model: Specialization and Exchange Disadvantages of Specialization Advantages of Families Beyond Specialization Transaction Cost and Bargaining Approaches Appendix: Specialization and Exchange: A Graphical Analysis Chapter 4 The Family as an Economic Unit: Evidence Time Spent in Nonmarket Work Estimating the Value of Nonmarket Production The American Family in the Twenty-First Century Chapter 5 The Labor Force: Definitions and Trends The Labor Force: Some Definitions Trends in Labor Force Participation Trends in Labor Force Attachment of Women Trends in Hours Worked Trends in Gender Differences in Unemployment Chapter 6 The Labor Supply Decision The Labor Supply Decision Some Applications of the Theory: Taxes, Child Care Costs, and Labor Supply Analyzing the Long-term Growth in Women's Labor Force Participation Recent Trends in Women's Labor Force Participation: Has the Engine of Growth Stalled? Analyzing Trends in Men's Labor Force Participation Black and White Participation Differentials: Serious Employment Problems for Black Men Appendix: The Income and Substitution Effects: A Closer Look Chapter 7 Evidence on Gender Differences in Labor Market Outcomes Gender Differences in Occupations The Gender Pay Ratio Gender Differences in Union Membership Gender Differences in Self-Employment Gender Differences in Nonstandard Work Chapter 8 Gender Differences in Educational Attainment: Theory and Evidence Chapter Highlights Supply and Demand Explanations: An Overview What Is Human Capital? Evidence on Gender Differences in Educational Attainment The Educational Investment Decision The Rising College Wage Premium Education and Productivity Gender Differences in Educational Investment Decisions: the Human Capital Explanation Gender Differences in Educational Investment Decisions: Social Influences and Anticipation of Discrimination Policy Issues: Title IX-Sports, Academics, and the Status of Single-Sex Education Explaining Women's Rising Educational Attainment Chapter 9 Other Supply-Side Sources of Gender Differences in Labor Market Outcomes: On-the-Job Training, Family Gaps, Psychological Attributes and Math Test Scores On-the-Job Training and Labor Market Experience Why do Firms Pay Tuition Benefits? Gender Differences in Labor Market Experience The On-the-Job Training Investment Decision Experience and Productivity Gender Differences in Training Investment Decisions Occupations and Earnings Family-Related Earnings Gaps Gender Differences in Psychological Attributes A Closer Look at Gender Differences in Math Test Scores Chapter 10 Evidence on the Sources of Gender Differences in Earnings and Occupations: Supply-Side Factors Versus Labor Market Discrimination Labor Market Discrimination: A Definition Analyzing the Sources of Gender Differences in Labor Market Outcomes Empirical Evidence on the Sources of Gender Differences in Earnings The Declining Gender Pay Gap Empirical Evidence on the Causes and Consequences of Gender Differences in Occupations Appendix: Regression Analysis and Empirical Estimates of Labor Market Discrimination Chapter 11 Labor Market Discrimination: Theory Theories of Labor Market Discrimination: An Overview Tastes for Discrimination Subtle Barriers Statistical Discrimination The Overcrowding Model Institutional Models (including dual labor markets) Feedback Effects Chapter 12 Government Policies to Combat Employment Discrimination Rationales for Government Intervention Equal Employment Opportunity Laws and Regulations Effectiveness of the Government's Antidiscrimination Effort Affirmative Action Comparable Worth Chapter 13 Changing Work Roles and Family Formation Economic Explanations for Family Formation Marriage Divorce Cohabitation: Opposite-Sex and Same-Sex Couples Fertility Chapter 14 The Changing American Family and Implications for Family Changing Family Structure Poverty: Incidence and Measurement Implications for Children's Well-Being Chapter 15 Government Policies Affecting Family Well-Being Policies to Alleviate Poverty Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) Child Support Enforcement Employment Strategies Taxes, Specialization, and Marriage Federal Income Tax Social Security Chapter 16 Balancing the Competing Demands of Work and Family The Competing Demands of Work and Family Rationales for Government and Employer Policies to Assist Workers Family Leave Child Care Other Employer-Provided Family Friendly Policies Chapter 17 Gender Differences Around the World: An Overview Indicators of Women's Economic Status Labor Force Participation Occupations Earnings Educational Attainment Fertility Housework Women's Role in Government and Their Standing Before the Law Cultural Factors Women's Status: An Assessment Economic Development, Globalization, and Women's Status Chapter 18 Gender Differences Around the World: A Closer Look at Specific Countries and Regions A Comparison of the United States to Other Economically Advanced Countries Challenges Facing Women in Developing Countries Countries of the Former Soviet Bloc Countries of the Middle East and North Africa

959 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is found that the availability of BITNET on a scientist's campus has a positive effect on his or her productivity and collaborative network and suggests that IT is an equalizing force, providing a greater boost to productivity and more collaboration opportunities for scientists who are more marginally positioned in academe.
Abstract: This study investigates the impact of information technology (IT) on productivity and collaboration patterns in academe. Our data combine information on the diffusion of two noteworthy innovations in IT---BITNET and the Domain Name System (DNS)---with career-history data on research-active life scientists. We analyzed a random sample of 3,114 research-active life scientists from 314 U.S. institutions over a 25-year period and find that the availability of BITNET on a scientist's campus has a positive effect on his or her productivity and collaborative network. Our findings also support the hypothesis of a differential effect of IT across subgroups of the scientific labor force. Women scientists and those working at nonelite institutions benefit more from the availability of IT in terms of overall research output and an increase in the number of new coauthors they work with than do men or individuals at elite institutions. These results suggest that IT is an equalizing force, providing a greater boost to productivity and more collaboration opportunities for scientists who are more marginally positioned in academe.

169 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An analysis of the impact of AFDC rules on cohabitation, marriage, and single motherhood and find weak evidence in support of incentives to cohabit.
Abstract: We investigate the extent and implications of cohabitation and marriage among U.S. welfare recipients. An analysis of four data sets (the Current Population Survey, the National Survey of Families and Households, the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth) shows significant numbers of cohabitors among recipients of AFDC. An even more surprising finding is the large number of married women on welfare. We also report the results of a telephone survey of state AFDC agencies conducted to determine state rules governing cohabitation and marriage. The survey results indicate that, in a number of respects, AFDC rules encourage cohabitation. Finally, we conduct an analysis of the impact of AFDC rules on cohabitation, marriage, and single motherhood and find weak evidence in support of incentives to cohabit.

127 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the impact of Medicaid on women's labor supply behavior while taking into account Medicaid's link to the AFDC program and found that, contrary to expectations, Medicaid has a generally insignificant effect on hours worked.
Abstract: This paper investigates Medicaid's impact on women's labor supply behavior while taking into account Medicaid's link to the AFDC program. The data were extracted from the 1986 Current Population Survey. A majorfinding is that Medicaid, valued as government-provided health insurance, has a significant negative impact on an average female head's probability of working. For instance, a I0 percent increase in Medicaid would reduce a head's probability of working by .9 to 1.3 percentage points. Contrary to expectations, Medicaid is found to have a generally insignificant effect on hours worked.

102 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper reviewed the literature on gender differences in economic experiments and identified robust differences in risk preferences, social (other-regarding) preferences, and competitive preferences, speculating on the source of these differences and their implications.
Abstract: This paper reviews the literature on gender differences in economic experiments. In the three main sections, we identify robust differences in risk preferences, social (other-regarding) preferences, and competitive preferences. We also speculate on the source of these differences, as well as on their implications. Our hope is that this article will serve as a resource for those seeking to understand gender differences and to use as a starting point to illuminate the debate on gender-specific outcomes in the labor and goods markets.

4,864 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: A Treatise on the Family by G. S. Becker as discussed by the authors is one of the most famous and influential economists of the second half of the 20th century, a fervent contributor to and expounder of the University of Chicago free-market philosophy, and winner of the 1992 Nobel Prize in economics.
Abstract: A Treatise on the Family. G. S. Becker. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 1981. Gary Becker is one of the most famous and influential economists of the second half of the 20th century, a fervent contributor to and expounder of the University of Chicago free-market philosophy, and winner of the 1992 Nobel Prize in economics. Although any book with the word "treatise" in its title is clearly intended to have an impact, one coming from someone as brilliant and controversial as Becker certainly had such a lofty goal. It has received many article-length reviews in several disciplines (Ben-Porath, 1982; Bergmann, 1995; Foster, 1993; Hannan, 1982), which is one measure of its scholarly importance, and yet its impact is, I think, less than it may have initially appeared, especially for scholars with substantive interests in the family. This book is, its title notwithstanding, more about economics and the economic approach to behavior than about the family. In the first sentence of the preface, Becker writes "In this book, I develop an economic or rational choice approach to the family." Lest anyone accuse him of focusing on traditional (i.e., material) economics topics, such as family income, poverty, and labor supply, he immediately emphasizes that those topics are not his focus. "My intent is more ambitious: to analyze marriage, births, divorce, division of labor in households, prestige, and other non-material behavior with the tools and framework developed for material behavior." Indeed, the book includes chapters on many of these issues. One chapter examines the principles of the efficient division of labor in households, three analyze marriage and divorce, three analyze various child-related issues (fertility and intergenerational mobility), and others focus on broader family issues, such as intrafamily resource allocation. His analysis is not, he believes, constrained by time or place. His intention is "to present a comprehensive analysis that is applicable, at least in part, to families in the past as well as the present, in primitive as well as modern societies, and in Eastern as well as Western cultures." His tone is profoundly conservative and utterly skeptical of any constructive role for government programs. There is a clear sense of how much better things were in the old days of a genderbased division of labor and low market-work rates for married women. Indeed, Becker is ready and able to show in Chapter 2 that such a state of affairs was efficient and induced not by market or societal discrimination (although he allows that it might exist) but by small underlying household productivity differences that arise primarily from what he refers to as "complementarities" between caring for young children while carrying another to term. Most family scholars would probably find that an unconvincingly simple explanation for a profound and complex phenomenon. What, then, is the salient contribution of Treatise on the Family? It is not literally the idea that economics could be applied to the nonmarket sector and to family life because Becker had already established that with considerable success and influence. At its core, microeconomics is simple, characterized by a belief in the importance of prices and markets, the role of self-interested or rational behavior, and, somewhat less centrally, the stability of preferences. It was Becker's singular and invaluable contribution to appreciate that the behaviors potentially amenable to the economic approach were not limited to phenomenon with explicit monetary prices and formal markets. Indeed, during the late 1950s and throughout the 1960s, he did undeniably important and pioneering work extending the domain of economics to such topics as labor market discrimination, fertility, crime, human capital, household production, and the allocation of time. Nor is Becker's contribution the detailed analyses themselves. Many of them are, frankly, odd, idiosyncratic, and off-putting. …

4,817 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: In this article, the authors acknowledge support for prior work on this topic from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and helpful comments from three anonymous referees, Rebecca Blank, Howard Chernick, John Fitzgerald, Irwin Garfinkel, Peter Gottschalk, Edward Gramlich, David Greenberg, Judith Gueron, James Heckman, V. Joseph Hotz, Robert Hutchens, Michael Keane, Frank Levy, Larry Mead, Michael Murray, Robert Plotnick, Anuradha Rangarajan, Philip Robins, Howard Rolston,
Abstract: The author would like to acknowledge support for prior work on this topic from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and helpful comments from three anonymous referees, Rebecca Blank, Howard Chernick, John Fitzgerald, Irwin Garfinkel, Peter Gottschalk, Edward Gramlich, David Greenberg, Judith Gueron, James Heckman, V. Joseph Hotz, Robert Hutchens, Michael Keane, Frank Levy, Larry Mead, Michael Murray, Robert Plotnick, Anuradha Rangarajan, Philip Robins, Howard Rolston, Jeffrey Smith, and Daniel Weinberg. All opinions and errors are those of the author alone.

1,172 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) microdata over the 1980-2010 period to provide new empirical evidence on the extent of and trends in the gender wage gap, which declined considerably during this time.
Abstract: Using Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) microdata over the 1980-2010 period, we provide new empirical evidence on the extent of and trends in the gender wage gap, which declined considerably during this time. By 2010, conventional human capital variables taken together explained little of the gender wage gap, while gender differences in occupation and industry continued to be important. Moreover, the gender pay gap declined much more slowly at the top of the wage distribution than at the middle or bottom and by 2010 was noticeably higher at the top. We then survey the literature to identify what has been learned about the explanations for the gap. We conclude that many of the traditional explanations continue to have salience. Although human-capital factors are now relatively unimportant in the aggregate, women's work force interruptions and shorter hours remain significant in high-skilled occupations, possibly due to compensating differentials. Gender differences in occupations and industries, as well as differences in gender roles and the gender division of labor remain important, and research based on experimental evidence strongly suggests that discrimination cannot be discounted. Psychological attributes or noncognitive skills comprise one of the newer explanations for gender differences in outcomes. Our effort to assess the quantitative evidence on the importance of these factors suggests that they account for a small to moderate portion of the gender pay gap, considerably smaller than, say, occupation and industry effects, though they appear to modestly contribute to these differences.

1,146 citations