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Anne J. Meier

Bio: Anne J. Meier is an academic researcher from Kennedy Space Center. The author has contributed to research in topics: In situ resource utilization & Sabatier reaction. The author has an hindex of 4, co-authored 12 publications receiving 33 citations.

Papers
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16 Jul 2017
TL;DR: In this article, the performance of the Atmospheric Processing Module (APM) Sabatier reaction over a packed bed reactor filled with Ru/Al2O3 pellets was investigated for future scaling and failure limits.
Abstract: The Atmospheric Processing Module (APM) is a Mars In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) technology designed to demonstrate conversion of the Martian atmosphere into methane and water. The Martian atmosphere consists of approximately 95 carbon dioxide (CO2) and residual argon and nitrogen. APM utilizes cryocoolers for CO2 acquisition from a simulated Martian atmosphere and pressure. The captured CO2 is sublimated and pressurized as a feedstock into the Sabatier reactor, which converts CO2 and hydrogen to methane and water. The Sabatier reaction occurs over a packed bed reactor filled with Ru/Al2O3 pellets. The long duration use of the APM system and catalyst was investigated for future scaling and failure limits. Failure of the catalyst was detected by gas chromatography and temperature sensors on the system. Following this, characterization and experimentation with the catalyst was carried out with analysis including x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy with elemental dispersive spectroscopy. This paper will discuss results of the catalyst performance, the overall APM Sabatier approach, as well as intrinsic catalyst considerations of the Sabatier reactor performance incorporated into a chemical model.

7 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
12 Sep 2017
TL;DR: The MARCO POLO-Mars Pathfinder Atmospheric Processing Module (APM) is designed to demonstrate in situ resource utilization (ISRU) of the Martian atmosphere, which primarily consists of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Abstract: Here we report further progress in the development of the MARCO POLO-Mars Pathfinder Atmospheric Processing Module (APM). The APM is designed to demonstrate in situ resource utilization (ISRU) of the Martian atmosphere, which primarily consists of carbon dioxide (CO2). The APM is part of a larger project with the overall goal of collecting and utilizing CO2 found in the atmosphere and water in the regolith of Mars to produce methane and oxygen to be used as rocket propellant, eliminating the need to import those to Mars for human missions, thus significantly reducing costs. The initial focus of NASA's new ISRU Project is modeling of key ISRU components, such as the CO2 Freezers and the Sabatier reactor of the APM. We have designed models of those components and verified the models with the APM by gathering additional data for the Sabatier reactor. Future efforts will be focused on simultaneous operations of the APM and other MARCO POLO-Mars Pathfinder modules.

7 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
11 Apr 2016
TL;DR: The Mars Atmospheric Processing Module (APM) as discussed by the authors was used to extract CO2 from the atmosphere of Mars, which is a rich resource for the human exploration of the red planet, primarily by the production of rocket propellants and oxygen for life support.
Abstract: The atmosphere of Mars, which is 96 percent carbon dioxide (CO2), is a rich resource for the human exploration of the red planet, primarily by the production of rocket propellants and oxygen for life support. Three recent projects led by NASAs Kennedy Space Center have been investigating the processing of CO2. The first project successfully demonstrated the Mars Atmospheric Processing Module (APM), which freezes CO2 with cryocoolers and combines sublimated CO2 with hydrogen to make methane and water. The second project absorbs CO2 with Ionic Liquids and electrolyzes it with water to make methane and oxygen, but with limited success so far. A third project plans to recover up to 100 of the oxygen in spacecraft respiratory CO2. A combination of the Reverse Water Gas Shift reaction and the Boudouard reaction eventually fill the reactor up with carbon, stopping the process. A system to continuously remove and collect carbon has been tested with encouraging results.

6 citations

08 Jul 2018
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a design study of the Sabatier subsystem of a Mars in situ resource utilization (ISRU) Propellant Production Plant to a flight demonstration.
Abstract: As NASA looks towards human missions to Mars, an effort has started to advance the technology of a Mars in situ resource utilization (ISRU) Propellant Production Plant to a flight demonstration. This paper will present a design study of the Sabatier subsystem. The Sabatier subsystem receives carbon dioxide, CO2, and hydrogen, H2, and converts them to methane, CH4, and water, H2O. The subsystem includes the Sabatier reactor, condenser, thermal management, and a recycling system (if required). This design study will look at how the choice of reactor thermal management, number of reactors, and recycling system affect the performance of the overall Sabatier system. Different schemes from the literature involving single or cascading reactors will be investigated to see if any provide distinct advantages for a Mars propellant production plant.

5 citations

07 Jul 2019
TL;DR: In this paper, a systematic approach to understand corrosion of spacecraft materials on Mars by conducting a literature search of available data, relevant to corrosion in the Mars environment was developed, motivated by the suggestion that some of the structural degradation observed on Curiosity's wheels may have been caused by corrosive interactions with the transient liquid brines, reported to be present on Mars, while the most significant damage was attributed to rock scratching.
Abstract: This report presents the results of a one-year project, funded by NASA’s Kennedy Space Center Innovation Fund in FY18, to conduct a theoretical study on the effect of the Mars environment on spacecraft materials. Corrosion resistance is one of the most important properties in selecting materials for landed spacecraft and structures that will support surface operations for the human exploration of Mars. Currently, the selection of materials is done by assuming that the corrosion behavior of a material on Mars will be the same as that on Earth. This is understandable since there is no data on the corrosion resistance of materials in the Mars environment. However, given that corrosion is defined as the degradation of a metal that results from its chemical interaction with the environment, it cannot be assumed that corrosion is going to be the same in both environments since they are significantly different. The goal of this research was to develop a systematic approach to understand corrosion of spacecraft materials on Mars by conducting a literature search of available data, relevant to corrosion in the Mars environment. This project was motivated by the suggestion, by a team of researchers, that some of the structural degradation observed on Curiosity's wheels may have been caused by corrosive interactions with the transient liquid brines, reported to be present on Mars, while the most significant damage was attributed to rock scratching. An extensive literature search, on data relevant to corrosion on Mars, confirmed the need to investigate the interaction between materials, used for spacecraft and structures designed to support long-term surface operations on Mars, and the Mars environment. Previous preliminary experiments, designed to look at the interaction between aerospace aluminum alloy (AA7075-T73) and the gases present https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20190032992 2019-12-30T03:28:38+00:00Z

4 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of the development of systems to utilize natural resources on Mars to enable advanced missions is provided in this paper, where the authors provide a comprehensive introduction to the current state-of-theart with the hope of facilitating its further development and integration into the many interconnected space systems including propulsion, power, life support, mobility, and planetary scientific research.

51 citations

Posted ContentDOI
29 Dec 2020
TL;DR: It is argued for an integrated biomanufacturing plant replete with modules for microbial resource utilization, production, and recycling of food, pharmaceuticals, and biomaterials required for sustaining future intrepid astronauts.
Abstract: A crewed mission to and from Mars may include an exciting array of enabling biotechnologies that leverage inherent mass, power, and volume advantages over traditional abiotic approaches. In this perspective, we articulate the scientific and engineering goals and constraints, along with example systems, that guide the design of a surface biomanufactory. Extending past arguments for exploiting stand-alone elements of biology, we argue for an integrated biomanufacturing plant replete with modules for microbial \textit{in situ} resource utilization, production, and recycling of food, pharmaceuticals, and biomaterials required for sustaining future intrepid astronauts. We also discuss aspirational technology trends in each of these target areas in the context of human and robotic exploration missions in the coming century.

35 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
12 Sep 2017
TL;DR: The MARCO POLO-Mars Pathfinder Atmospheric Processing Module (APM) is designed to demonstrate in situ resource utilization (ISRU) of the Martian atmosphere, which primarily consists of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Abstract: Here we report further progress in the development of the MARCO POLO-Mars Pathfinder Atmospheric Processing Module (APM). The APM is designed to demonstrate in situ resource utilization (ISRU) of the Martian atmosphere, which primarily consists of carbon dioxide (CO2). The APM is part of a larger project with the overall goal of collecting and utilizing CO2 found in the atmosphere and water in the regolith of Mars to produce methane and oxygen to be used as rocket propellant, eliminating the need to import those to Mars for human missions, thus significantly reducing costs. The initial focus of NASA's new ISRU Project is modeling of key ISRU components, such as the CO2 Freezers and the Sabatier reactor of the APM. We have designed models of those components and verified the models with the APM by gathering additional data for the Sabatier reactor. Future efforts will be focused on simultaneous operations of the APM and other MARCO POLO-Mars Pathfinder modules.

7 citations

Dissertation
14 Dec 2018
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated different processes related to the storage of energy coming from renewable sources, and the main innovative procedure has been to add a long-range potential energy surface (PES), converting it into a suitable one for non reactive processes, while maintaining the accuracy of the ab initio, necessary for the reactive processes.
Abstract: The aim of the present thesis encompasses different processes related to the storage of energy coming from renewable sources. Concretely, this thesis aims to study, from a theoretical point of view, the processes related to the plasma-assisted Sabatier reaction (CO 2 + 4 H2 → CH4 + 2 H2O), where the heterogeneous catalyst is composed by Ni/Ru elements. The research is consequently split in the topics developed at each partner specialties. In the university of Perugia, the plasma/gas phase processes are considered, concretely the study of the OH + H 2 using the quantum-classical method. The main innovative procedure has been to add a long-range potential tail to the already available. Potential Energy Surface (PES), converting it into a suitable one for non reactive processes, while maintaining the accuracy of the ab initio, necessary for the reactive processes. In this sense we carried out a study of OH + H2 scattering using a quantum-classical method, treating quantally vibrations and classically both translations and rotations. The good agreement between the state specific quantum- classical reactive probabilities and the corresponding full quantum ones prompted the extension of the study to state to state probabilities for non reactive vibrational energy exchange. The study showed that H 2 reactive dynamics depends on the vibrational excitation, while the non reactive one is mainly vibrationally adiabatic. On the contrary, OH reactive dynamics is not affected by its vibrational excitation, whereas the non reactive one might produce some pumping up to higher vibrational states. In the university Paul Sabatier of Toulouse, the Ru clusters and nanoparticles, part of the industrial catalyst are studied using the DFTB approach. The intend was to investigate the ability of DFTB to provide reliable results about electronic structure, structural properties and stability of monometallic ruthenium systems covering the size range from small clusters to larger nanoparticles and the bulk. Due to the fact that the electronic bonding and structural organization of ruthenium cluster are somewhat specific in regard of other metal clusters, it is challenging to examine whether DFTB is able to account for such peculiarities. Parallel-Tempering Molecular Dynamics (PTMD), was used in combination with periodic quenching to achieve global optimization of neutral, cationic and anionic clusters in the range n=3-20.[...]

7 citations

05 Feb 2013
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of photon flux (i.e., photons per unit time reaching a surface) from that of photon energy on the PCO of ethanol was investigated.
Abstract: This collection of studies focuses on a PCO system for the oxidation of a model compound, ethanol, using an adsorption-enhanced silica-TiO2 composite (STC) as the photocatalyst; studies are aimed at addressing the optimization of various parameters including light source, humidity, temperature, and possible poisoning events for use as part of a system for gaseous trace-contaminant control system in closed-environment habitats. The first goal focused on distinguishing the effect of photon flux (i.e., photons per unit time reaching a surface) from that of photon energy (i.e., wavelength) of a photon source on the PCO of ethanol. Experiments were conducted in a bench-scale annular reactor packed with STC pellets and irradiated with either a UV-A fluorescent black light blue lamp O max=365 nm) at its maximum light intensity or a UV-C germicidal lamp O. max=254 nm) at three levels of light intensity. The STC-catalyzed oxidation of ethanol was found to follow zero-order kinetics with respect to CO2 production, regardless of the photon source. Increased photon flux led to increased EtOH removal, mineralization, and oxidation rate accompanied by lower intermediate concentration in the effluent. The oxidation rate was higher in the reactor irradiated by UV-C than by UV-A (38.4 vs. 31.9 nM s-1 ) at the same photon flux, with similar trends for mineralization (53.9 vs. 43.4%) and reaction quantum efficiency (i.e., photonic efficiency, 63.3 vs. 50.1 nmol C02 ~mol photons-1 ). UV-C irradiation also led to decreased intermediate concentration in the effluent compared to UV -A irradiation. These results demonstrated that STC-catalyzed oxidation is enhanced by both increased photon flux and photon energy. The effect of temperature and relative humidity on the STC-catalyzed degradation of ethanol was also determined using the UV-A light source at its maximum intensity.

6 citations