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Anne Linn Hykkerud

Bio: Anne Linn Hykkerud is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Medicine & Vaccinium. The author has an hindex of 3, co-authored 6 publications receiving 57 citations.
Topics: Medicine, Vaccinium, Wax, Ripening, Chemistry

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review focuses on the current knowledge of the cuticular wax biosynthesis during fleshy fruits development, and on the effect of environmental factors in regulation of the biosynthesis.
Abstract: The aerial parts of land plants are covered by a hydrophobic layer called cuticle that limits non-stomatal water loss and provides protection against external biotic and abiotic stresses. The cuticle is composed of polymer cutin and wax comprising a mixture of very-long-chain fatty acids and their derivatives, while also bioactive secondary metabolites such as triterpenoids are present. Fleshy fruits are also covered by the cuticle, which has an important protective role during the fruit development and ripening. Research related to the biosynthesis and composition of cuticles on vegetative plant parts has largely promoted the research on cuticular waxes in fruits. The chemical composition of the cuticular wax varies greatly between fruit species and is modified by developmental and environmental cues affecting the protective properties of the wax. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the cuticular wax biosynthesis during fleshy fruits development, and on the effect of environmental factors in regulation of the biosynthesis. Bioactive properties of fruit cuticular waxes are also briefly discussed, as well as the potential for recycling of industrial fruit residues as a valuable raw material for natural wax to be used in food, cosmetics and medicine.

75 citations

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TL;DR: An overview of the development and application of analytical chemistry methods, such as isotope ratio analysis, liquid and gas chromatography, spectroscopy, as well as DNA-based methods and electronic sensors, for the authentication of berries and berry-based food products is provided in this paper.
Abstract: Berries represent one of the most important and high-valued group of modern-day health-beneficial "superfoods" whose dietary consumption has been recognized to be beneficial for human health for a long time. In addition to being delicious, berries are rich in nutrients, vitamins, and several bioactive compounds, including carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and hydrolysable tannins. However, due to their high value, berries and berry-based products are often subject to fraudulent adulteration, commonly for economical gain, but also unintentionally due to misidentification of species. Deliberate adulteration often comprises the substitution of high-value berries with lower value counterparts and mislabeling of product contents. As adulteration is deceptive toward customers and presents a risk for public health, food authentication through different methods is applied as a countermeasure. Although many authentication methods have been developed in terms of fast, sensitive, reliable, and low-cost analysis and have been applied in the authentication of a myriad of food products and species, their application on berries and berry-based products is still limited. The present review provides an overview of the development and application of analytical chemistry methods, such as isotope ratio analysis, liquid and gas chromatography, spectroscopy, as well as DNA-based methods and electronic sensors, for the authentication of berries and berry-based food products. We provide an overview of the earlier use and recent advances of these methods, as well as discuss the advances and drawbacks related to their application.

17 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Temperature and light conditions related to latitude and season affect the sensory quality of broccoli florets, and it is demonstrated that the northernmost location with low temperatures and long days had highest scores for bud coarseness and uniform colour.
Abstract: Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is a popular vegetable grown at a wide range of latitudes. Plants were grown in 2009-2011 in pots with standardized soil, irrigation and nutrient supply under natural temperature and light conditions at four locations (42-70° N). A descriptive sensory analysis of broccoli florets was performed by a trained panel to examine any differences along the latitudinal gradient for 30 attributes within appearance, odour, taste/flavour and texture.; Results: Average results over three summer seasons in Germany, southern Norway and northern Norway showed that the northernmost location with low temperatures and long days had highest scores for bud coarseness and uniform colour, while broccoli from the German location, with high temperatures and shorter days, had highest intensity of colour hue, whiteness, bitter taste, cabbage flavour, stale flavour and watery flavour. Results from two autumn seasons at the fourth location (42° N, Spain), with low temperatures and short days, tended toward results from the two northernmost locations, with an exception for most texture attributes.; Conclusion: Results clearly demonstrate that temperature and light conditions related to latitude and season affect the sensory quality of broccoli florets. Results may be used in marketing special quality regional or seasonal products. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.; © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

15 citations

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TL;DR: Ellagitannin content was the most dominating polyphenol group observed in this study and was affected by genetics and is therefore a good breeding criterion for increased health benefit of cloudberry.
Abstract: Cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.) is a wild perennial shrub growing on peatland with a circumpolar distribution. The combined berries have a high polyphenol content comprised primarily of ellagitannins. A few commercial cultivars are available, and pre-breeding trials on clonal material from different geographical origins are in progress. The objective of this study was to investigate how the content of polyphenols of four different cloudberry cultivars were affected by harvesting time and climatic variations during a 3-year-period. Plants were grown outside in plots and berries were harvested when mature. Berries were analyzed for total polyphenols and total anthocyanins by spectrophotometer. Total ellagic acid was identified and quantified using HPLC-MS after hydrolysis of the extracts. Results showed that all measured parameters; total anthocyanins, total polyphenols and ellagic acid are strongly influenced by the genetic background. Although low anthocyanin contents were present in all genotypes, they were highly affected by climatic conditions, being highest at low temperatures. However, the content of ellagic acid was less affected by environmental conditions and showed little response to changing temperatures. In conclusion, ellagitannin content was the most dominating polyphenol group observed in this study and was affected by genetics and is therefore a good breeding criterion for increased health benefit of cloudberry.

13 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a review compiles information from the reports about the effects of light conditions at high latitudes on growth, biomass production, flowering and quality of the crop plants and discusses the gained knowledge and the key gaps to be addressed.
Abstract: The natural light conditions above the Arctic Circle are unique in terms of annual variation creating special growth conditions for crop production. These include low solar elevations, very long daily photosynthetic light periods, midnight sun/absence of dark nights, and altered spectral distribution depending on solar elevation. All these factors are known to affect the growth and the metabolism of plants, although their influence on northern crop plants has not yet been reviewed. The ongoing global warming is especially affecting the temperature × light interactions in the Arctic, and understanding the impact on crop production and plant metabolism will be important for an Arctic contribution to global food production. Arctic light conditions have a strong influence on the timing of plant development, which together with temperature limits the number of cultivars suitable for Arctic agriculture. This review compiles information from the reports about the effects of light conditions at high latitudes on growth, biomass production, flowering and quality of the crop plants and discusses the gained knowledge and the key gaps to be addressed.

10 citations


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is concluded that anthocyanin accumulation is strongly regulated by development and genotype, and the environmental factors, associated to the altitude gradient, exert in the trial conditions only a fine-tuning influence.
Abstract: Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is a widely consumed fruit and a rich source of bioactive compounds, namely the polyphenol class of anthocyanins. Little information is available about the influence of internal (genetic and developmental) and external (environmental) factors on the levels of phenolic metabolites in blueberry fruit. In light of this consideration, total polyphenolic and flavonoid content, anthocyanin accumulation and composition were evaluated in cv ‘Duke’ and ‘Brigitta’ grown at two different altitudes in Valtellina, a valley of the Alps in Northern Italy. During berry ripening, there is a developmentally coordinated shift from cyanidin-type, di-substituted anthocyanins toward delphinidin-based, tri-substituted pigments. At the lower altitude location higher temperatures, not exceeding optimum, resulted in a more quickly berry developmental pattern and in higher anthocyanin concentrations in the early phases of ripening. At later stages of ripening, berries of both cultivars at higher altitude compensate for these initial temperature effects and no differences were recorded in ripe fruit grown in the two locations. We conclude that anthocyanin accumulation is strongly regulated by development and genotype and the environmental factors, associated to the altitude gradient, exert in the trial conditions only a fine-tuning influence. Fruits reach the full ripening stage simultaneously at both sites because the initial gap in pigment levels is counterbalanced at the higher altitude by a faster rate of accumulation at later phases of the ripening process.

64 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a review of the literature on gene editing for postharvest is presented, and the authors conclude that in spite of the hurdles that remain, gene editing of produce and ornamentals will likely have a measurable impact on reducing post-harvest loss and waste in the next 5-10 years.
Abstract: Postharvest waste and loss of horticultural crops exacerbates the agricultural problems facing humankind and will continue to do so in the next decade. Fruits and vegetables provide us with a vast spectrum of healthful nutrients, and along with ornamentals, enrich our lives with a wide array of pleasant sensory experiences. These commodities are, however, highly perishable. Approximately 33% of the produce that is harvested is never consumed since these products naturally have a short shelf-life, which leads to postharvest loss and waste. This loss, however, could be reduced by breeding new crops that retain desirable traits and accrue less damage over the course of long supply chains. New gene-editing tools promise the rapid and inexpensive production of new varieties of crops with enhanced traits more easily than was previously possible. Our aim in this review is to critically evaluate gene editing as a tool to modify the biological pathways that determine fruit, vegetable, and ornamental quality, especially after storage. We provide brief and accessible overviews of both the CRISPR-Cas9 method and the produce supply chain. Next, we survey the literature of the last 30 years, to catalog genes that control or regulate quality or senescence traits that are "ripe" for gene editing. Finally, we discuss barriers to implementing gene editing for postharvest, from the limitations of experimental methods to international policy. We conclude that in spite of the hurdles that remain, gene editing of produce and ornamentals will likely have a measurable impact on reducing postharvest loss and waste in the next 5-10 years.

45 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the composition and morphology of cuticular waxes of northern wild berry species bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), lingonberry and crowberry (Empetrum nigrum L.) were investigated.

38 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The mechanisms underlying diel and seasonal variations in phytochemical composition are reviewed and examples of temporal regulation of specific compounds within phenol, terpenoid, and alkaloidPhytochemical classes are provided and integrating temporal factors will improve the understanding of the underlying regulatory connections and ultimately improve the quality of phytochemicals.
Abstract: Plants regulate molecular bioactivity in response to daily and seasonal environmental fluctuations in temperature, light, humidity, and precipitation. These rhythms interconnect, overlap, and feedback both into each other and into the plant’s endogenous circadian clock. The resulting regulatory network tightly ensures that the overall phytochemical composition is highly adaptive to the plant’s needs at any point in time. Temporally coordinated control of primary and secondary metabolism ensures phytochemicals are in tune with the demands of the environment and the available resources. As a consequence, phytochemical composition varies throughout the day and year. This variation in phytochemical abundance and composition across time can affect experimental results and conclusions. Understanding how phytochemical composition varies across time is critical for uncovering the underlying regulatory connections and ultimately improving the quality of phytochemical products. Herein, we review the mechanisms underlying diel and seasonal variations in phytochemical composition and provide examples of temporal regulation of specific compounds within phenol, terpenoid, and alkaloid phytochemical classes. Temporal regulation of phytochemical composition. The phytochemical composition of a plant is under complex control, affected by both external environmental factors and endogenous circadian rhythms. The environmental factors that directly affect phytochemical profiles and concentrations themselves vary across time of day and time of year. These cyclic environmental factors also entrain the endogenous circadian clock which imposes additional regulation on the production and processing of many phytochemicals. This concerted effort to ensure phytochemicals are exquisitely in tune with the demands of the environment results in fluctuating phytochemical composition. Variation in phytochemical abundance and composition across time can affect experimental results and conclusions. Failing to consider the factors of time of day and year can result in misleading or inconsistent estimations of the potency and composition of phytochemical extractions. Integrating temporal factors will improve our understanding of the underlying regulatory connections and ultimately improve the quality of phytochemical products.

32 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A role for ABA in the regulation of fatty acid content and primary alcohol composition is suggested, and the importance of alkane and triterpenoid for controlling water permeance through fruit cuticles is pointed out.
Abstract: Citrus fruit ripening is coupled with the synthesis and deposition of epicuticular waxes, which reduces water loss during fruit postharvest storage. Although abscisic acid (ABA) is a major regulator of citrus fruit ripening, whether ABA mediates epicuticular wax formation during this process remains poorly understood. We investigated the implication of ABA in cuticle properties and epicuticular wax metabolism, composition, and morphology by comparing the Navelate orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and its ABA biosynthesis-impaired mutant Pinalate in four ripening stages. ABA deficiency had minor effects on cuticle thickness and epicuticular wax load, but correlated with cuticle permeability. ABA content aligned with mostly fatty acids accumulation in both cultivars, and also with specific alkane, terpenoid, and aldehyde constituents in the parental fruit. In turn, cuticle permeability correlated with the fatty acid profile during fruit ripening in the Navelate and Pinalate, and with primary alcohols, terpenoids, and aldehydes, but only in the mutant fruit. Low ABA levels increased the susceptibility of waxes to crack and were lost from the epicuticular layer. The RNA-seq analysis highlighted the differential regulation of a list of 87 cuticle-related genes between genotypes and ripening stages. Changes in the gene expression of the selected genes in both cultivars were consistent with the content of the aliphatics and terpenoid fractions during ripening. The results suggest a role for ABA in the regulation of fatty acid content and primary alcohol composition, and point out the importance of alkane and triterpenoid for controlling water permeance through fruit cuticles.

29 citations