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Anne O. Krueger

Bio: Anne O. Krueger is an academic researcher from Johns Hopkins University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Commercial policy & Trade barrier. The author has an hindex of 60, co-authored 290 publications receiving 19361 citations. Previous affiliations of Anne O. Krueger include Stanford University & University of Minnesota.


Papers
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Posted Content
TL;DR: In this article, the authors studied the impact of competitive import licenses on the economy and the relationship between welfare cost of quantitative restrictions and tariff equivalents, and showed that the effect of wage legislation on equilibrium levels of unemployment.
Abstract: Studies the impact of competitive import licenses on the economy. Value of rents associated with import licenses; Relationship between welfare cost of quantitative restrictions and tariff equivalents; Impact of wage legislation on equilibrium levels of unemployment. (Из Ebsco)

4,933 citations

Posted Content
01 Jan 1978
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the consequences of liberalization attempts and their consequences in international economic relations, and present a survey of the literature on this topic, focusing on the following topics:
Abstract: Tables. Title: Liberalization attempts and consequences. Issued also as: Studies in International Economic Relations (USA) no. 9

791 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: The authors takes as a given the proposition that, in many developing countries, governmental policies have been highly distortive and harmful to economic growth, including omissions, such as neglect of infrastructure, and commission such as highly restrictive trade regimes and credit rationing.
Abstract: This paper takes as a given the proposition that, in many developing countries, governmental policies have been highly distortive and harmful to economic growth. These policies have included omissions, such as neglect of infrastructure, and commission such as highly restrictive trade regimes and credit rationing. The issues arising from recognition that governments, like markets, are imperfect are discussed.

579 citations

Book
01 Jan 1992
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examine how development policies have affected agriculture in 18 developing countries, including Africa and the Mediterranean, and explain price discrimination against agriculture and explain how it has changed over time.
Abstract: This is one of a number of comparative studies which examine how development policies have affected agriculture in 18 developing countries. This volume, which looks at Africa and the Mediterranean, estimates price discrimination against agriculture and explains how it has changed over time.

545 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examined whether the Solow growth model is consistent with the international variation in the standard of living, and they showed that an augmented Solow model that includes accumulation of human as well as physical capital provides an excellent description of the cross-country data.
Abstract: This paper examines whether the Solow growth model is consistent with the international variation in the standard of living. It shows that an augmented Solow model that includes accumulation of human as well as physical capital provides an excellent description of the cross-country data. The paper also examines the implications of the Solow model for convergence in standards of living, that is, for whether poor countries tend to grow faster than rich countries. The evidence indicates that, holding population growth and capital accumulation constant, countries converge at about the rate the augmented Solow model predicts. This paper takes Robert Solow seriously. In his classic 1956 article Solow proposed that we begin the study of economic growth by assuming a standard neoclassical production function with decreasing returns to capital. Taking the rates of saving and population growth as exogenous, he showed that these two vari- ables determine the steady-state level of income per capita. Be- cause saving and population growth rates vary across countries, different countries reach different steady states. Solow's model gives simple testable predictions about how these variables influ- ence the steady-state level of income. The higher the rate of saving, the richer the country. The higher the rate of population growth, the poorer the country. This paper argues that the predictions of the Solow model are, to a first approximation, consistent with the evidence. Examining recently available data for a large set of countries, we find that saving and population growth affect income in the directions that Solow predicted. Moreover, more than half of the cross-country variation in income per capita can be explained by these two variables alone. Yet all is not right for the Solow model. Although the model correctly predicts the directions of the effects of saving and

14,402 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper showed that differences in physical capital and educational attainment can only partially explain the variation in output per worker, and that a large amount of variation in the level of the Solow residual across countries is driven by differences in institutions and government policies.
Abstract: Output per worker varies enormously across countries. Why? On an accounting basis, our analysis shows that differences in physical capital and educational attainment can only partially explain the variation in output per worker--we find a large amount of variation in the level of the Solow residual across countries. At a deeper level, we document that the differences in capital accumulation, productivity, and therefore output per worker are driven by differences in institutions and government policies, which we call social infrastructure. We treat social infrastructure as endogenous, determined historically by location and other factors captured in part by language.

7,208 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a newly assembled data set consisting of subjective indices of corruption, the amount of red tape, the efficiency of the judicial system, and various categories of political stability for a cross section of countries is analyzed.
Abstract: This paper analyzes a newly assembled data set consisting of subjective indices of corruption, the amount of red tape, the efficiency of the judicial system, and various categories of political stability for a cross section of countries. Corruption is found to lower investment, thereby lowering economic growth. The results are robust to controlling for endogeneity by using an index of ethnolinguistic fractionalization as an instrument.

7,191 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article showed that the differences in capital accumulation, productivity, and therefore output per worker are driven by differences in institutions and government policies, which are referred to as social infrastructure and called social infrastructure as endogenous, determined historically by location and other factors captured by language.
Abstract: Output per worker varies enormously across countries. Why? On an accounting basis our analysis shows that differences in physical capital and educational attainment can only partially explain the variation in output per worker—we find a large amount of variation in the level of the Solow residual across countries. At a deeper level, we document that the differences in capital accumulation, productivity, and therefore output per worker are driven by differences in institutions and government policies, which we call social infrastructure. We treat social infrastructure as endogenous, determined historically by location and other factors captured in part by language. In 1988 output per worker in the United States was more than 35 times higher than output per worker in Niger. In just over ten days the average worker in the United States produced as much as an average worker in Niger produced in an entire year. Explaining such vast differences in economic performance is one of the fundamental challenges of economics. Analysis based on an aggregate production function provides some insight into these differences, an approach taken by Mankiw, Romer, and Weil [1992] and Dougherty and Jorgenson [1996], among others. Differences among countries can be attributed to differences in human capital, physical capital, and productivity. Building on their analysis, our results suggest that differences in each element of the production function are important. In particular, however, our results emphasize the key role played by productivity. For example, consider the 35-fold difference in output per worker between the United States and Niger. Different capital intensities in the two countries contributed a factor of 1.5 to the income differences, while different levels of educational attainment contributed a factor of 3.1. The remaining difference—a factor of 7.7—remains as the productivity residual. * A previous version of this paper was circulated under the title ‘‘The Productivity of Nations.’’ This research was supported by the Center for Economic Policy Research at Stanford and by the National Science Foundation under grants SBR-9410039 (Hall) and SBR-9510916 (Jones) and is part of the National Bureau of Economic Research’s program on Economic Fluctuations and Growth. We thank Bobby Sinclair for excellent research assistance and colleagues too numerous to list for an outpouring of helpful commentary. Data used in the paper are available online from http://www.stanford.edu/,chadj.

6,454 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Paul Pierson1
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors conceptualized path dependence as a social process grounded in a dynamic of increasing returns, and demonstrated that increasing returns processes are likely to be prevalent and that good analytical foundations exist for exploring their causes and consequences.
Abstract: It is increasingly common for social scientists to describe political processes as “path dependent.” The concept, however, is often employed without careful elaboration. This article conceptualizes path dependence as a social process grounded in a dynamic of “increasing returns.” Reviewing recent literature in economics and suggesting extensions to the world of politics, the article demonstrates that increasing returns processes are likely to be prevalent, and that good analytical foundations exist for exploring their causes and consequences. The investigation of increasing returns can provide a more rigorous framework for developing some of the key claims of recent scholarship in historical institutionalism: Specific patterns of timing and sequence matter; a wide range of social outcomes may be possible; large consequences may result from relatively small or contingent events; particular courses of action, once introduced, can be almost impossible to reverse; and consequently, political development is punctuated by critical moments or junctures that shape the basic contours of social life.

5,652 citations