Bio: Annett Kocum is an academic researcher from University of Greifswald. The author has contributed to research in topics: Accipitriformes & Aquila clanga. The author has an hindex of 2, co-authored 2 publications receiving 119 citations.
TL;DR: Parsimony reconstruction of the evolution of plumage pattern within Aquilini suggests that transverse barring of parts of the body plumage was lost in the Palearctic Aquila-Hieraaetus clade, pale underparts in adult plumages evolved three times independently, and dimorphic adult plumage is a derived character of the small-bodied HieraaetusClade.
Abstract: The phylogeny of the tribe Aquilini (eagles with fully feathered tarsi) was investigated using 4.2 kb of DNA sequence of one mitochondrial (cyt b) and three nuclear loci (RAG-1 coding region, LDH intron 3, and adenylate-kinase intron 5). Phylogenetic signal was highly congruent and complementary between mtDNA and nuclear genes. In addition to single-nucleotide variation, shared deletions in nuclear introns supported one basal and two peripheral clades within the Aquilini. Monophyly of the Aquilini relative to other birds of prey was confirmed. However, all polytypic genera within the tribe, Spizaetus, Aquila, Hieraaetus, turned out to be non-monophyletic. Old World Spizaetus and Stephanoaetus together appear to be the sister group of the rest of the Aquilini. Spizastur melanoleucus and Oroaetus isidori are nested among the New World Spizaetus species and should be merged with that genus. The Old World 'Spizaetus' species should be assigned to the genus Nisaetus (Hodgson, 1836). The sister species of the two spotted eagles (Aquila clanga and Aquila pomarina) is the African Long-crested Eagle (Lophaetus occipitalis). Hieraaetus fasciatus/spilogaster are closest to Aquila verreauxii and should be merged with that genus. Wahlberg's Eagle H. wahlbergi, formerly placed in Aquila, is part of a clade including three small Hieraaetus species (pennatus, ayresii, and morphnoides). The Martial Eagle (Polemaetus bellicosus) is the sister species of the Aquila/Hieraaetus/Lophaetus clade. Basal relationships within this clade remained unresolved. Parsimony reconstruction of the evolution of plumage pattern within Aquilini suggests that: (1) transverse barring of parts of the body plumage was lost in the Palearctic Aquila-Hieraaetus clade, (2) pale underparts in adult plumage evolved three times independently, and (3) dimorphic adult plumage is a derived character of the small-bodied Hieraaetus clade.
TL;DR: Mitochondrial introgression was asymmetrical (no pomarina haplotype found in clanga so far), which may be due to assortative mating by size, andGene flow of nuclear markers was estimated to be about ten times stronger than for mtDNA, indicating a sex-bias in hybrid fertility in accordance with Haldane's rule.
Abstract: Greater and lesser spotted eagles (Aquila clanga, A. pomarina) are two closely related forest eagles overlapping in breeding range in east-central Europe. In recent years a number of mixed pairs have been observed, some of which fledged hybrid young. Here we use mitochondrial (control region) DNA sequences and AFLP markers to estimate genetic differentiation and possible gene flow between these species. In a sample of 83 individuals (61 pomarina, 20 clanga, 2 F1-hybrids) we found 30 mitochondrial haplotypes which, in a phylogenetic network, formed two distinct clusters differing on average by 3.0% sequence divergence. The two species were significantly differentiated both at the mitochondrial and nuclear (AFLP) genetic level. However, five individuals with pomarina phenotype possessed clanga-type mtDNA, suggesting occasional gene flow. Surprisingly, AFLP markers indicated that these “mismatched” birds (originating from Germany, E Poland and Latvia) were genetically intermediate between the samples of individuals in which mtDNA haplotype and phenotype agreed. This indicates that mismatched birds were either F1 or recent back-cross hybrids. Mitochondrial introgression was asymmetrical (no pomarina haplotype found in clanga so far), which may be due to assortative mating by size. Gene flow of nuclear markers was estimated to be about ten times stronger than for mtDNA, indicating a sex-bias in hybrid fertility in accordance with Haldane’s rule. Hybridization between the two species may be more frequent and may occur much further west than hitherto assumed. This is supported by the recent discovery of a mixed pair producing at least one fledgling in NE Germany.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a review of known cases of mito-nuclear discordance in animal systems and summarize the biogeographic patterns in each instance and identify common drivers of discordance.
Abstract: Combining nuclear (nuDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers has improved the power of molecular data to test phylogenetic and phylogeographic hypotheses and has highlighted the limitations of studies using only mtDNA markers. In fact, in the past decade, many conflicting geographic patterns between mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers have been identified (i.e. mito-nuclear discordance). Our goals in this synthesis are to: (i) review known cases of mito-nuclear discordance in animal systems, (ii) to summarize the biogeographic patterns in each instance and (iii) to identify common drivers of discordance in various groups. In total, we identified 126 cases in animal systems with strong evidence of discordance between the biogeographic patterns obtained from mitochondrial DNA and those observed in the nuclear genome. In most cases, these patterns are attributed to adaptive introgression of mtDNA, demographic disparities and sex-biased asymmetries, with some studies also implicating hybrid zone movement, human introductions and Wolbachia infection in insects. We also discuss situations where divergent mtDNA clades seem to have arisen in the absence of geographic isolation. For those cases where foreign mtDNA haplotypes are found deep within the range of a second taxon, data suggest that those mtDNA haplotypes are more likely to be at a high frequency and are commonly driven by sex-biased asymmetries and/or adaptive introgression. In addition, we discuss the problems with inferring the processes causing discordance from biogeographic patterns that are common in many studies. In many cases, authors presented more than one explanation for discordant patterns in a given system, which indicates that likely more data are required. Ideally, to resolve this issue, we see important future work shifting focus from documenting the prevalence of mito-nuclear discordance towards testing hypotheses regarding the drivers of discordance. Indeed, there is great potential for certain cases of mitochondrial introgression to become important natural systems within which to test the effect of different mitochondrial genotypes on whole-animal phenotypes.
TL;DR: A global map of zoogeographic regions is generated by combining data on the distributions and phylogenetic relationships of 21,037 species of amphibians, birds, and mammals, and it is shown that spatial turnover in the phylogenetic composition of vertebrate assemblages is higher in the Southern than in the Northern Hemisphere.
Abstract: Modern attempts to produce biogeographic maps focus on the distribution of species, and the maps are typically drawn without phylogenetic considerations. Here, we generate a global map of zoogeographic regions by combining data on the distributions and phylogenetic relationships of 21,037 species of amphibians, birds, and mammals. We identify 20 distinct zoogeographic regions, which are grouped into 11 larger realms. We document the lack of support for several regions previously defined based on distributional data and show that spatial turnover in the phylogenetic composition of vertebrate assemblages is higher in the Southern than in the Northern Hemisphere. We further show that the integration of phylogenetic information provides valuable insight on historical relationships among regions, permitting the identification of evolutionarily unique regions of the world.
TL;DR: A review of studies of introgression in species with sex-biased dispersal largely confirms that species delimitation should be more effective with markers experiencing high levels of gene flow, a simple but not widely appreciated prediction.
Abstract: A defining feature of species is that their constituting populations are connected by gene flow. However, interspecific gene flow (introgression) can affect species integrity. If some genome components were less prone to introgression than others, they should be particularly suitable to delimitate species. Recent simulation studies have predicted a negative correlation between intra- and interspecific gene flow, suggesting that markers associated with the most dispersing sex should better delimitate species. A review of studies of introgression in species with sex-biased dispersal largely confirms this prediction. Hence, species delimitation should be more effective with markers experiencing high levels of gene flow, a simple but not widely appreciated prediction.
TL;DR: This review describes the various methods available to handle AFLP data, and investigates the characteristics and limitations of these statistical tools, and appeals for a wider adoption of methodologies borrowed from other research fields, like for example those especially designed to deal with binary data.
Abstract: Recently, the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique has gained a lot of popularity, and is now frequently applied to a wide variety of organisms. Technical specificities of the AFLP procedure have been well documented over the years, but there is on the contrary little or scattered information about the statistical analysis of AFLPs. In this review, we describe the various methods available to handle AFLP data, focusing on four research topics at the population or individual level of analysis: (i) assessment of genetic diversity; (ii) identification of population structure; (iii) identification of hybrid individuals; and (iv) detection of markers associated with phenotypes. Two kinds of analysis methods can be distinguished, depending on whether they are based on the direct study of band presences or absences in AFLP profiles ('band-based' methods), or on allelic frequencies estimated at each locus from these profiles ('allele frequency-based' methods). We investigate the characteristics and limitations of these statistical tools; finally, we appeal for a wider adoption of methodologies borrowed from other research fields, like for example those especially designed to deal with binary data.
TL;DR: A phylogenetic (cladistic) analysis of 150 taxa of Neornithes, including exemplars from all non-passeriform families, and subordinal representatives of Passeriformes, confirmed the topology among outgroup Theropoda and achieved robust resolution at virtually all levels of the NeornIthes.
Abstract: In recent years, avian systematics has been characterized by a diminished reliance on morphological cladistics of modern taxa, intensive palaeornithogical research stimulated by new discoveries and an inundation by analyses based on DNA sequences. Unfortunately, in contrast to significant insights into basal origins, the broad picture of neornithine phylogeny remains largely unresolved. Morphological studies have emphasized characters of use in palaeontological contexts. Molecular studies, following disillusionment with the pioneering, but non-cladistic, work of Sibley and Ahlquist, have differed markedly from each other and from morphological works in both methods and findings. Consequently, at the turn of the millennium, points of robust agreement among schools concerning higher-order neornithine phylogeny have been limited to the two basalmost and several mid-level, primary groups. This paper describes a phylogenetic (cladistic) analysis of 150 taxa of Neornithes, including exemplars from all non-passeriform families, and subordinal representatives of Passeriformes. Thirty-five outgroup taxa encompassing Crocodylia, predominately theropod Dinosauria, and selected Mesozoic birds were used to root the trees. Based on study of specimens and the literature, 2954 morphological characters were defined; these characters have been described in a companion work, approximately one-third of which were multistate (i.e. comprised at least three states), and states within more than one-half of these multistate characters were ordered for analysis. Complete heuristic searches using 10 000 random-addition replicates recovered a total solution set of 97 well-resolved, most-parsimonious trees (MPTs). The set of MPTs was confirmed by an expanded heuristic search based on 10 000 random-addition replicates and a full ratchet-augmented exploration to ascertain global optima. A strict consensus tree of MPTs included only six trichotomies, i.e. nodes differing topologically among MPTs. Bootstrapping (based on 10 000 replicates) percentages and ratchet-minimized support (Bremer) indices indicated most nodes to be robust. Several fossil Neornithes (e.g. Dinornithiformes, Aepyornithiformes) were placed within the ingroup a posteriori either through unconstrained, heursitic searches based on the complete matrix augmented by these taxa separately or using backbone-constraints. Analysis confirmed the topology among outgroup Theropoda and achieved robust resolution at virtually all levels of the Neornithes. Findings included monophyly of the palaeognathous birds, comprising the sister taxa Tinamiformes and ratites, respectively, and the Anseriformes and Galliformes as monophyletic sister-groups, together forming the sister-group to other Neornithes exclusive of the Palaeognathae (Neoaves). Noteworthy inferences include: (i) the sister-group to remaining Neoaves comprises a diversity of marine and wading birds; (ii) Podicipedidae are the sister-group of Gaviidae, and not closely related to the Phoenicopteridae, as recently suggested; (iii) the traditional Pelecaniformes, including the shoebill (Balaeniceps rex) as sister-taxon to other members, are monophyletic; (iv) traditional Ciconiiformes are monophyletic; (v) Strigiformes and Falconiformes are sister-groups; (vi) Cathartidae is the sister-group of the remaining Falconiformes; (vii) Ralliformes (Rallidae and Heliornithidae) are the sister-group to the monophyletic Charadriiformes, with the traditionally composed Gruiformes and Turniciformes (Turnicidae and Mesitornithidae) sequentially paraphyletic to the entire foregoing clade; (viii) Opisthocomus hoazin is the sister-taxon to the Cuculiformes (including the Musophagidae); (ix) traditional Caprimulgiformes are monophyletic and the sister-group of the Apodiformes; (x) Trogoniformes are the sister-group of Coliiformes; (xi) Coraciiformes, Piciformes and Passeriformes are mutually monophyletic and closely related; and (xii) the Galbulae are retained within the Piciformes. Unresolved portions of the Neornithes (nodes having more than one most-parsimonious solution) comprised three parts of the tree: (a) several interfamilial nodes within the Charadriiformes; (b) a trichotomy comprising the (i) Psittaciformes, (ii) Columbiformes and (iii) Trogonomorphae (Trogoniformes, Coliiformes) + Passerimorphae (Coraciiformes, Piciformes, Passeriformes); and (c) a trichotomy comprising the Coraciiformes, Piciformes and Passeriformes. The remaining polytomies were among outgroups, although several of the highest-order nodes were only marginally supported; however, the majority of nodes were resolved and met or surpassed conventional standards of support. Quantitative comparisons with alternative hypotheses, examination of highly supportive and diagnostic characters for higher taxa, correspondences with prior studies, complementarity and philosophical differences with palaeontological phylogenetics, promises and challenges of palaeogeography and calibration of evolutionary rates of birds, and classes of promising evidence and future directions of study are reviewed. Homology, as applied to avian examples of apparent homologues, is considered in terms of recent theory, and a revised annotated classification of higher-order taxa of Neornithes and other closely related Theropoda is proposed. (c) 2007 The Linnean Society of London, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2007, 149, 1-95.